In this study, the use of sediments from this high elevation lake in a paleoecological study provides an overview of climate change, vegetation and human influence. Early records show a domination of Pinus, and Betula pollens with deciduous Quercus and grasses or shrubs. Aquatic microfossils have indicated that wet seasons and high levels of the lake occurred in the years preceding 7800 cal yr BP. This was in the contrary to the occurrence of such climatic conditions in the lower elevation. These conditions appeared after 7800 cal yr BP. Lager disparities in the early Holocene seasonal insolation might have led to bigger snowpack and hence ensuing higher lake levels within the greater elevations. Dry conditions within high elevations began in 5700 cal yr BP accompanied by reduction in pollen in wetlands. The observed decline in mesophytes in this lake is a phenomenal also observed in other parts of Europe. This era marked the transition of mid to late Holocene. After 3700 years ago, human disturbance rapidly engulfed the Laguna de Rio Seco as evidenced by agricultural activities of herbivore grazing and pastoralism. Direct influence by humans in form of agricultural farming was extensive in the last hundred years as evidenced by Olea, Pinus and Zea mays pollen (Anderson, R., et al., 21). Introduction The production, movement and deposition of sediments within mountain ecosystems are impacted by various factors. These factors may be categorized into three groups including proximal, distal and local controls. Proximal factors are exemplified by climatic changes, glaciations, vegetation cover and relief. Distal factors are mostly dependent on altitudes and as such are affected by base levels. Finally, local controls are best portrayed by human influence such as agriculture and other human related activities. The paleoecological research and study of mountain ecosystems is vital for the documentation of effects related to climate warming. Moreover, these studies aid in the prediction of future adverse impacts. There is the need to delink the relative impact of either climatic deviations or human disturbance from ecological shifts. A common approach is to carry out a comparison of ecological shifts before and after the growth of human activities. These ecological time zones are exemplified by glaciation and post glaciation period to the last millennia era. The later time periods have seen a gradual increase and intensified transformations in mountain ecology and ecosystems (Anderson et al., 29). A case study on impact of agriculture on post glacial sedimentation in lakes in Europe is well depicted in Sierra Nevada. This is a massive physical geographical feature which has a rich diversity in cultural heritage and biological components. Additionally, it is the highest range in Europe outside the Alps and is the biggest in size as a mountain range in southern Spain. This immense feature is located in the Andalucia region. It has had various inhabitants as early as Neolithic era or perhaps even earlier. Human exploitation on this vital area includes the eras of Chalcolithic, Argaric, Iron-Age, Romans, Goths and Christians. All the people who have inhabited this region have ensured that their activities have contributed to a change in the surrounding ecosystem particularly on sedimentation. Spanning to
Name: Instructor: Course: Date: The impact of agriculture on Post-Glacial lake sedimentation in Europe Abstract The vegetation chronology of southern Spain has been the subject of endless paleoecological studies with total exclusivity. These studies have been conducted in low and middle elevations and also the supra and mesomediterranean belts…
Germany after post-reunification became a democratic post-national state in comparison to its peers in Europe and the global arena. Germany as a country was strongly founded on states confederation referred to as the European Union (EU).
The main aim of fascism was to eliminate those influences, which were perceived as foreign; however, they did not fit the current political, cultural and ancestral ideologies. Therefore, this history and science paper on fascism in Europe shall analyze the various aspects of fascism in Europe.
This will factor in the different economic aspects of any economy which include the political institutions, social organization and the overall economic policies or the overriding political ideology. It has even established and agreed over a common currency which is the euro.
Between 25 000 and 45 000 years ago the lake covered 135 square kilometers and was about 10 meters deep. On its eastern side, sand dunes provided sheltered campsites by the lake shore. It was one of a series of freshwater lakes along Willandra Creek, which was then a major branch of the Lachlan River.
It’s often described as Europe, Asia and Africa on one island due to the multiple ruling powers that have occupied it over history. It’s also often described as the world’s first multicultural society, and it contains a unique history, culture and a diverse geographical landscape in relation to its compact size unrivalled within any other region of Europe.
A growing movement has emerged during the past two decades to question the role of the agricultural establishment in promoting practices that contribute to these social problems.This movement is known as sustainable agriculture. Sustainable agriculture not only address many environmental and social concerns, but it offers innovative and economically viable opportunities for growers, laborers, consumers, policymakers and many others in the entire food system.
Other authors see Boyle as a master writer that brings a special twist of humor and reality that leaves the reader with a feeling of satisfaction.At what point does a boy become a man, at what point does the boy put away childish things in search for the ritualistic commitment that makes him an adult.
Tilling takes place when the machines are used to remove the weeds from the fields and also while the soil is ploughed to make rows for the plantation. The layer of the soil which holds the plant is called top soil. Top soil is very fertile & suitable for the growth of plants.
Lake Erie used to be full of all kind of fish. The lake was greatly used for commercial fishing and as a tourist spot for vacationers. After colonization the human development that took place in that region had a great impact on this lake and the creatures that live in it.
The layer of the soil which holds the plant is called top soil. Top soil is very fertile & suitable for the growth of plants. During the planting of the crops & plowing of the soil, much of this fertile soil gets washed
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