The different crop management practices involved in conventional farming that include mixing of soil by tillage frequently and then leaving the soil exposed during significant periods of time lead to rising oxidation of organic matter and also reduces the levels of organic matter significantly thereby increasing the risks of soil erosion (Glinski, Horabik & Lipiec, 2011, p.527). It was during the 1990s that the crop management practices involved in conventional farming were questioned owing to the heavy use of chemicals. These chemicals had the potential ability to cause environmental degradation (Hunter, 2004, p.45). Studies have revealed that the quality of the soil under such farming practices have been poor thereby increasing the costs of the products as well as health. Considering these effects the long term sustainability of the conventional farming has been questioned against the alternative practices being available. Indirect costs including the offsite damage from erosion of soil, pollution in the surface and ground water, hazards to health of both human and animal, and damage to wildlife from conventional farming practices are at the moment tolerated by the humanity (Reganold, n.d.).
Conventional farming has proved to have certain negative effects of the quality of the soil. Owing to the exposed nature of the soil, the productivity of the soil tends to get reduced due to wind and water erosion, compaction of soil, soil organic matter getting lost, accompanied by losses in water holding capacity and biological activity.