The method is commercially designed for RDX and HMX testing for concentrations between 1-20mg/kg in soil samples, Marshall & Oxley (2008). EPA method 8510’s procedure adheres to the following steps; Extract soil sample with acetone If inorganic nitrates and nitrites are present the soil extract is then pasted through an ion exchange resin for their removal The Nitramines and Nitrate esters are then acidified and mixed with zinc dust, passed through reactants of target analytes of zinc dust A color then is developed using NitriVer3 powder pillow, which ranges from pink to deep red depending on the concentration of RDX/HMX in the mixture. Using a spectrophotometer, absorbance is then measured of the treated extract at designated wavelengths and the concentration of RDX/HMX of the unknown sample estimated by comparison to a known standard. Interferences of the sample analysis can be caused by the presence of solvents, reagents, glassware and other processing hardwares present in the soil sample. Hence, the soil samples must be rendered free of these materials by using specific selection of reagents and solvent purification using distillation process in an all glass system following guidelines on cleaning of glassware(). Chemical related explosives such as nitroguanidine (NQ), nitroglycerine (NG), nitrocellulose (NC), tetryl and pentaeythritol tetra nitrate (PETN) can cause pink color to develop if found present in the soil sample. In the absence of RDX and HMX on the pink color does not develop in the presence of Trinitroluence, Dinitrobenzene, 2, 6-Dinitrotoluene, Trinitrobenzene and 2, 4-Dinitrotoluene. Human matter present in the soil will cause a yellow colored extract but this precipitates during acidification leaving the extract cloudy interfering with the accurate determination of absorbance, Taibah University (2012). Other than the common laboratory glassware such as beakers, test tubes etc., the equipment used in this procedure include: A commercial testing product, EnSys RDX soil testing system that specify the apparatus and materials necessary for test completion Spectrophotometer capable of reading absorbance of 507-510 nm Top loading or mechanical balance for weighing samples to -/+ 0.1g Spectrophotometer cuvettes two or more of 25ml and 2.5cm path length Alternatively; Analytical balance Wide mouth bottles of 125ml Glass volumetric pipettes ranging from 0.5ml – 25.0ml Graduated cylinders 10ml and 100ml Glass volumetric flasks 100ml and 250ml Filter units 0.45 or 0.5µm Syringes Spatula Vacuum desiccator – For preparing calibration standards in a fixed laboratory and storage of zinc dust Ion exchange tubes Alumina-A, 3ml Automatic pipet -500µl equipped with tips Measuring spoon for zinc dust Wrist action shaker Vials -40ml amber glass equipped with solid caps Reagents and standards; Acetone, CH3COCH3 Distilled water Analytical standards(RDX and HMX analytical standards) Stock standard solution Working standard solution Calibration solution Q2. Draw a cause and effect (fishbone) diagram to indicate the contributions to the uncertainty in the result for RDX in soil. Taibah University (2012) Reagent Humic matter Linearity Temperature Calibration Temperature Standard Sampling Standard Volume Temperature Extraction procedure
Determination of the Explosive HMX in Soil (Name of Student) (Academic Institution) (TA Title & Name) (13.03.2012) EPA method 8510 is a screening procedure used to determine RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) in soil samples and other propellant and explosive compounds such as nitroguanidine (NQ), nitroglycerine (NG), nitrocellulose (NC), tetryl and pentaeythritol tetra nitrate (PETN)…
The paper will observe the prevalence of plots that had low intensity of both light and clover, in many of these plots no clover was present. These plots differed visually from other plots, as in these plots the soil was exposed and there was no vegetation of any species. In addition, there was animal faecal matter present.
The research gives detailed information about description of the promising land-use types; determines the requirements for water, nutrients, erosion avoidance etc; conduction of surveys necessary to map the land units as well as description of their physical properties; comparing requirements for the given land-use types with the properties of the given land units
Parklands, college campuses, athletic fields, and farms have an interest in controlling the damage to turfgrasses from foot traffic. The consequences of heavy traffic to grasses, as well as soil are quantified. Measurements and variables are described that influence the height potential of turfgrass, as well as its ability to recover from the damage induced by foot traffic.
Exchange rates policy dates back many years. As noted by Lau (n.d., p. 2), in 1867, the Trans-Atlantic cable was the only electronic link between Europe and North America. In this period, four fuzzy edges characterized the international monetary experience.
Hydraulic conductivity is universally determined through an empirical approach, which entails correlating hydraulic conductivity to the properties of the soil. It is also determined through an experimentation process, entailing the calculation of the level of conductivity, experimentally (Deb &, Shukla, 2012).
All designs rely on the accuracy of the reports. This research will help to understand various geotechnical investigations done before construction and their importance. A Comparison study will be done between standards followed for geotechnical investigation in UK and Saudi.
In order to set right the damage, the soil has been washed a number of times with fresh water and this should have brought down the chloride content in the soil and in the ground water at the location. The accident happening in 2005 and thereafter, the steps have been initiated to stop the leak and to decrease the chloride levels in the soil.
concentration from peak area is 1.045 and that for the sample concentration from peak height is 0.938 there is only a very small difference of 0.107. The magnitude of this error rate difference is insignificant.
The objective of this experiment is met. The concentration of the
Industrial farming has highly mechanization and feeds huge numbers of people than what a single farmer can do. In America alone, a single industrial farmer can feed 3 million people. The machines replace human labor and in turn consume a large number of gallons of
One of the dyes that were being sought for in the experiment was Sudan dyes. These are synthetic azo dyes commonly in industries despite the fact that they have been found to be contaminating foodstuffs (Juan Lia et al. 2013). This paper could have informed its readers more
6 pages (1500 words)Coursework
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