Depending on the nature of the pressure ulcer, common treatments include relieving pressure, restoring circulation, and resolution or management of related disorders. However, prevention still remains as the most potent intervention which significantly reduces the chances of undergoing excruciating long-term therapy (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009).
Effective prevention measures include risk identification, pressure reduction, nutritional assessment, bed rest monitoring, and preservation of skin integrity. In cases of existing pressure ulcers, treatment options include: pressure reduction either by repositioning the patient or by using devices such as beds, mattresses, overlays, and cushions; use of topical ointments; wound cleansing; debridement; and use of dressings to promote wound healing (Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins 2009).
The proper assessment of pressure ulcers is crucial in the determining risk of developing pressure ulcers and provision of appropriate interventions. The Braden Scale is used to determine characteristics present in pressure ulcers. This tool evaluates a patient’s condition in terms of: (1) sensory perception; (2) moisture; (3) activity, (4) mobility, (5) nutrition, and (6) friction and shear (Prevention Plus LLC 2009). The Pressure Ulcer Staging System is a tool developed by the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research to facilitate the assessment of pressure sore characteristics. ...
Allen (2011) emphasized the role of pain assessment and treatment as a crucial part of pressure ulcer prevention and management. However, the assessment of patient pain does present some challenges since the sensation of pain is an individual perception. Any indication of pain is considered a valid pain response and patients can experience pain in varying frequency and intensity. In addition, patients may associate pain with movement, infection, or during treatments such as dressing changes and debridement procedures. On the other hand, there may be isolated cases where patients do not report any pain. 1.1. Background of the Study Pain is never ending problem for most patients with pressure ulcers (Caplan 2009; Allen, 2011). Despite advanced improvement in pressure ulcer (PU) care, the condition continues to be a national and international health care problem, resulting in a decreased quality of life, both physically and emotionally, unnecessary suffering, and even death. Research over the past decade has largely focused on the assessment and healing of pressure ulcers, for example, the introduction of standardized risk assessment tools, which are used for the prevention, staging and management of PUs. Despite, all of these measures there is still a dearth of research in relation to the prevention and management of pressure ulcer pain. The impetus for this proposed study comes from the researcher’s personal motivation to search and examine recent evidence-based research addressing pressure ulcer pain, including the factors contributing to the pain, the psychological and social impact of continuous pressure ulcer pain, pain at dressing change and