Genghis Khan was first called Temjin in honor of a Tartar enemy his father had recently defeated. When the boy was nine, he was betrothed to Brte, who belonged to the Konkirat tribe - according to the rules, he was supposed to live there until he reached the marriageable age of 14. But rival tribal members killed his father, therefore, Temjin returned to his family.
This gave Temjin a claim to be the clan's chief, though his clan refused to be led by a boy and soon abandoned him and his family. They were forced into exile: for the next few years, Temjin and his family lived the life of impoverished nomads, surviving primarily on marmots and other small game.
They barely survived the harsh winter, but then, another tribe raided their camp and took Temjin prisoner, placing a heavy wooden collar around his neck to prevent escape. However, Temjin managed to free himself, return to his tribe, and by his early teens, gain the reputation as a furious warrior.
Around the age of 16, Temjin at last married Brte, thus he began to forge cooperation among the many clans and tribes through diplomacy. While the number of the young leader's alliances were still small, a rival tribe, the Merkits, raided Temjin's camp and kidnapped his wife.
Temjin called on his friend and later rival, Jamuka, for aid. ...
He then allowed survivors to choose between joining his forces or being put to the sword. Another key to his success was an alliance with his father's blood brother (anda), Toghril Ong-Khan, Khan of the Keraits, which were another tribe. Eventually, relations between Temjin and Toghril soured (as with Jamuka), which led to a war that left Temjin victorious.
Thus, during this period he endured many hardships, the years between 1185 and 1206 were the most difficult years in his life. Nevertheless, it only made him stronger - using his personal charisma, and strong will Temjin managed to unite the tribes into a single federation by 1206. It was a turning point for the Mongols, who had a long history of internecine, dispute and economic hardship. At a Kurultai, a council of Mongol chiefs he was acknowledged as "Khan" of the consolidated tribes and took the name Genghis Khan (variously defined as "Universal Lord," "Rightful Lord," or "Precious Lord", Oceanic Ruler or Resolute Ruler) (Man 49, 204; Ratchnevsky 5-37; Weatherford 10-37, 92).
2. Years of conquest. Although Genghis Khan now ruled the whole Mongolia, he was not content to remain there. At the time of the Kurultai, when Genghis obtained his title, the Mongols were involved in a dispute with the Tangut Empire of Xi-Xia (it comprised much of northwestern China and parts of Tibet), which demanded tribute from them. This campaign lasted form 1207 until 1210 with the Xi-Xia ruler submitting to Genghis Khan.
In 1211, Genghis Khan led his armies against the Jin (or Chin) Dynasty that ruled northern China in order to prevent them from challenging the Mongols for territory and resources. The Mongol army crossed the Great Wall of China in 1213, and in 1215 Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of