This can range from maintaining a basic pH in the bloodstream to temperature. The main part of the brain responsible for maintaining homeostasis in the hypothalamus, which sits under the thalamus and above the pituitary gland. This strategic location allows it to communicate with the thalamus, which processes sensory information, in order to mediate the hormonal response of the pituitary gland. The feeling of cold is registered through special receptors located in the skin. When a certain threshold is reached based on temperature, sensory information is routed through a variety of different pathways. Some of these pathways lead to the spinal cord, which necessitates the fast reflex, whereas some reach the somatosensory cortex and the thalamus where it is processed. The act of maintaining internal body temperature in the cold causes certain physiological responses. Blood vessels become constricted through movement of tissues surrounding in order to keep the blood concentrated around those organs imperative to survival. In addition, brown fat plays an important part in insulating the body and providing warmth. The outer extremities of the body such as fingers, toes, genitalia, etc. are the most susceptible to frostbite because they lack sufficient blood flow to these areas that would normally be kept warm through the flow of blood.
When making a diagnosis in the case of an osteopathic injury, there are many different types of medical and physical tests that a doctor will run in order to find the location of the injury. MRI stands for magnetic resonance imaging. Surgeons use this scan in order to look at the anatomy of the body. In the case of osteopathic injuries, it will show tears in ligaments, muscles, and any other abnormalities/damage that might have occurred in the area. Aging is simply put as the degradation of biological processes. As humans age, the ability to regenerate and heal becomes harder.