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Antibodies - Essay Example

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Antibodies

It is also used as antifreeze for de-icing aircrafts at airports as it lowers the freezing point of water. Recent applications include use as a humectant and a preservative. It is used in cosmetics, pharmaceutical preparations and also in electronic cigars2.
1,2-Propanediol as well as 1,3-Propanediol can be manufactured though bioengineered microorganisms. By turning on and off some genes, it is possible to make the microorganism overproduce a specific metabolic product. As shown in figure 2, the intermediate metabolism of Escherichia coli can be shifted to produce 1,2 and 1,3-propanediol using enzymes such as aldose reductase from rat lens, E. coli glycerol dehydrogenase and Klebsiella pneumoniae glycerol dehydrogenase and 1,3-propanedioloxidoreductase4. There are various biochemical pathways through which 1,2-propanediol can be produced.
The production of 1,2-propanediol through sugar fermentation has long been reported in bacteria5. Many subsequent studies have reported the production of this glycol in other bacteria and yeasts. Production of 1,2-propanediol by wild-type E. coli from common sugars is not known. As back as 1981, 1,2-propanediol was found to be produced through a direct route from deoxy sugars by E.coli6. It was shown that E. coli can grow on the L-fucose and L-rhamnose deoxy sugars as sole carbon and energy sources resulting in the production of propanediol. The first instance of metabolic engineering to produce 1,2-propanediol was when Altaras and Cameron metabolically bioengineered the 1,2-propanediol pathway in E. coli7. In 1999, they reported that E. coli that overexpressed methylglyoxal synthase gene produced 1,2-propanediol. Expression of methylglyoxal synthase or glycerol dehydrogenase led to anaerobic production of around 0.25 g of 1,2-propanediol per liter. The yield was found to be higher both the enzymes were coexpressed7.
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Summary

Innumerable products of industrial microbiology have been developed and produced through various biotechnological approaches such as metabolic pathway engineering and metabolic control engineering of microorganisms. One such product is 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), a…
Author : wilkinsonjamey
Antibodies essay example
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