According to Lavin (2009), hypothyroidism can be termed as thyroid hormone deficiency whereby the thyroid hormone levels in the body have no effects on the body tissues as required. He notes that thyroid hormones deficiency has numerous negative impacts on the overall functioning of the body tissues (Lavin, 2009). How does hypothyroidism affect DNA? It affects DNA by interfering with the usage of the messages carried by the DNA and DNA transcription. By binding to the receptors found on the nucleus of each cell, DNA transcription is affected. Hence, hypothyroidism leads to low levels of transcription of DNA. It reduces DNA synthesis (Thurlbeck & Churg, 1995).
The cause of hypothyroidism could be injury to the thyroid gland. An illness such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis can cause it. It leads to the production of antibodies that destroy the thyroid gland. Such illness is regarded to as an autoimmune disease. If the pituitary gland is destroyed or is not functioning properly, then thyroid hormone production is reduced. Some medications like lithium cause hypothyroidism. (Harvard Health Publications; White, & Garber, 2010). Genetics is can be used to explain how DNA mutation and alteration cause hypothyroidism. When there are DNA changes in various genes, then this can cause congenital hypothyroidism. The number of chromosomes also leads to hypothyroidism (Valente, Hosford-Dunn, & Roeser, 2008).
DNA and hypothyroidisim have an intricate relationship. Ptaff (2002) asserts that relations of thyroid hormone with the proteins that bind Deoxyribonucleic acid is the main means through which thyroid hormone controls transcription of thyroid hormone-responsive genes (Ptaff, 2002). In hypothyroidism, DNA methyltransferase activity is regulated more while that of histone acetylases is regulated less (Acton, 2012).
The thyroid –stimulating hormone β gene defect has been found in various families with hypothyroidism. The defect in the