The pill or oral contraceptives are also common and effective if used the right way. These pills contain different combinations of synthetic estrogens and progestins to interfere with ovulation. They are effective if taken once a day and preferably at the same time each day, though they do not reduce risks of STDs. They can be ineffective for those who smoke, more than 35 years old, have histories of blood clots, high blood pressure or certain types of cancer such as liver, breast, or endometrial cancers (Ireland 518).
Injectable birth control is another method. It involves the injection of a particular progestin, Depo-Provera (depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate) given to the arm or buttocks once in three months. One disadvantage is that it can temporarily lead to a loss of bone density especially if used by adolescents. Discontinuation of this method can stop the bone loss. Certain foods and diets are essential if a patient chooses this method, especially those rich in calcium and vitamin. It does not prevent STDs (Ireland 518).
Implantable rods are the size of a matchstick surgically inserted in the upper arm of a woman. It releases progestin and can work for a period of five years. It does not reduce in any way the risks of STDs, and if the date lapses, it may take a while before a woman becomes pregnant (Ireland 519).
Emergency contraceptive pills are hormonal pills taken as a single dosage or taking two doses twelve hours apart. These are commonly used after unprotected sexual intercourse.