He added that since needs are many; they are arranged in order of importance i.e. from basic to a complex one. A person advances to the next level of needs after the lower level of need has been satisfied and he progresses up the hierarchy. This motivation theory list the human needs from the lowest to highest as: physiological, safety and security, love, self esteem and self actualization.
In Maslow's theory, the lowest level is physiological needs and money happens to be one of the physiological needs. According to Herzberg's two-factor model of motivation, money as a Physiological need in Maslow's theory is a motivator, though it tends to have a motivating effect on staff that lasts only for a short period. Maslow demonstrated that at higher level of the hierarchy, praise, respect, recognition, empowerment and a sense of belonging are more powerful motivators than money.
McGregor places money in his theory X and Y places money in theory X category and he feels it not a good motivator of work. He places praise and recognition in theory Y category and he feels that they are strong motivators than money.
Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members. (House, Hanges, Javidan, Dorfman, and Gupta, 2004)
There are a number of leadership styles namely: Authoritarian, democratic and free reign. For effective management a good leader should use all the three leadership styles.
Authoritarian leadership style is used when the leader does not want nay contribution from his fellow employees because of the limited time, have all the instructions to solve a problem and the employees are well motivated.
Democratic leadership style is used when the leader involves the other employees in decision making but he is usually the one who make the final decision. This style is applicable if a leader has time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from their employees.
Free reign leadership style is used when the leader has trust and confidence with the people below him and for this case he allows them to make decisions and delegate tasks. The employees are supposed to analyse the situation and determines what is to be done and how is to be done. The leader sets priorities and he is responsible for the decisions that are made.
There is no one best leadership style but the three should be employed for effective management of an organisation. (Kouzes and Posner, 2002)
3. To what extent does participation in groups enhance individual performance
Participation in group enhance individual performance since it increases cooperativeness and hence teamwork. This increases collaboration and trust between team members thereby enhancing motivation. In turn this enhances individual performance since there a lot of motivation among the employees.
4. To what extent and how can an Organisation's culture be effectively managed
Organization culture is the collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization that control the way they interact with each other and
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