On of th ky problms in ntrprnurship rsrh rlts to th lk of onsnsus rgrding dfinition for ntrprnurship. In ft, mny uthors, suh s Spinos (1997), Knight (2000), nd Hjorth (2004) hv mphsisd th lk of n grd dfinition of ntrprnurship nd wht ntrprnurship onstituts s fild of rsrh. Th ppr disusss th sttmnt by Bridgs (2003: p51) stting tht "ntrpris tivity is dpndnt on ntrprising individuls" nd nlyss th ky thoris tht might hv rlvn with this sttmnt nd to vlut wht mks on prson mor ntrprising thn othr.
Within th fild of ntrprnurship studis, it is dbtd whthr th rtion of nw ombintions rquirs th rtion of nw orgnistion or if it is lso md possibl through innovtion in xisting orgnistion (;).In omprison, th psyhologil hrtristis shool of ntrprnurship fouss on prsonlity ftors nd numbr of diffrnt spts hv bn xplord in th rsrh. Ths r prsonl vlus suh s honsty, duty, rsponsibility nd thil bhviour, risk-tking propnsity, th nd for hivmnt (Mlllnd, 2000) nd lous of ontrol (Story, 2001: p25). dhrnts to this shool of thought do not bliv tht ntrprnurs n b dvlopd or trind in th lssroom.
Th lssil onomi shool is rfltd in th rsrh by uthors suh s ntillon (1992) nd Shumptr (1986). In ft Hjorth (2004) points out tht urop hs long stblishd trdition of ntrprnurship nd tht th trm "ntrprnur" drivs from th Frnh vrb "ntrprndr", mning to undrtk. Ky spts of this shool of thought r innovtion, rtivity nd disovry. In prtiulr, Shumptr (1986) sw th ntrprnur s somon who would disrupt th onomi quilibrium, th Shumptrin ntrprnur would b n innovtor providing th indispnsbl driving for for pitlist onomi growth.
Th mngmnt shool of ntrprnurship is bsd on th blif tht ntrprnurship n b tught (Spinos, 1997). s rsult, ntrprnurship is viwd s sris of lrnd tivitis with fous on th ntrl funtions of mnging firm. In omprison, th ldrship shool of ntrprnurship is oftn viwd s th non-thnil sid of th mngmnt shool s fous is upon th ntrprnur s "popl mngr" or s n fftiv ldr/mntor whos mjor rol is in motivting, dirting nd lding popl (ldrih, 1999).
Th Frnh trdition ssoitd with th work of ntillon (1992) suggsts tht th ntrprnur is th ky figur who oprts within st of onomi mrkts. H hs th forsight to ssum unrtinty; h rts to profit opportunitis nd brs unrtinty. This ontrsts with th Grmn-ustrin trdition rprsntd by Shumptr (1986) whr th Shumptrin ntrprnur plys disquilibrting rol by innovting, i.. introduing nw goods or mthods of prodution nd th opning of nw mrkts.
Th higo trdition is ssoitd with th work of Knight (2000), who suggsts tht ntrprnurs r rsponsibl for thir own tions. ntrprnurs r prprd to tk risks in n unrtin nvironmnt. Knight lso suggstd tht ntrprnurs hv skills nd omptnis tht nbl thm to sussfully o-ordint sr rsours, whih distinguishs thm from othr individuls.
Spinos (1997) ss ntrprnurship s th study of th rtion of orgnistions or so-lld nw vntur rtion. Hjorth (2004) onivs ntrprnurship s orgnistionl mrgn nd hn shifts th fous from th individul ntrprnur to th mor omplx pross of how orgnistions r rtd through th intrply of four prsptivs: hrtristis of th individuls who strt th vntur, th orgnistion tht thy rt, th nvironmnt surrounding th nw vntur, nd th pross by whih th nw vntur is strtd (Glbrith, 2002: p123). Historilly, ntrprnurship hs bn