The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the work of organization members and of using all available organizational resources to reach stated organizational goals is called management.
In fact, management is an attempt to create a desirable future, keeping the past and present in mind. It is not only practiced in a specific time frame but is also the reflection of a particular historical era. Therefore management specializes in dealing with matters of time. Management plays another significant part of making and sustaining relationships. Management specializes in the art of juggling multiple simultaneous relationships.
Management is a process to emphasize that all managers, regardless of their specific aptitudes and skills, engage in certain interrelated activities to achieve their goals. It is the journey towards the fulfillment of these goals that requires planning and organizing as pre-requisites. Planning implies that managers think through their goals and actions in advance and that their actions are based on some method, plan or logic, rather than a hunch. However to execute these goal-reaching plans effectively, a proper organizing is required. Organizing is the process of arranging and allocating work, authority and resources among an organization's members so that they can achieve the organization's goals. Therefore organizational design becomes very significant.
Bureaucratic Management: Different perspectives
The dynamic engagement approach recognizes that an organization's environment is not some set of fixed, impersonal forces. Rather, it is a complex and dynamic web of people interacting with each other. Consequently, every organization's management operates according to certain systems to take care of all in-built and ever-emerging intricacies. There are numerous schools of thought that inspire various management processes. Bureaucracy is one.
In the words of Schumpeter Joseph. A (Austrian Economist and Political Scientist), "Bureaucracy is not an obstacle to democracy, but an inevitable compliment to it."
Bureaucracy has been a highly successful form of organization in the preceding century. Though it has been a subject of trial and error evolution, yet it has been considered very rational. Bureaucracy is the concept in sociology and political science referring to the way that the administrative execution and legal rules is socially organized.
The experts' opinion: What the researchers say
Noted German political economist and sociologist, Maxmilian Weber considered bureaucracy to be inseparable from the concept of rationality. According to Weber these are some defining characteristics of a bureaucracy:
Specification of job with detailed obligations, responsibilities and scope of authority
System of supervision and subordination
Unity of command
Extensive use of written documents
Training in job requirements and skills
Application of consistent and complete rules
Delegation of work and hiring personnel based on competence and experience
As per Weber's contention, bureaucracies offer very systematic processes that not only help to streamline operations but also specify functional areas as well as effective decision-making. Bureaucracy, as per Weber, is a way of organizing large number of people and interactions in a well-laid out hierarchical framework interspersed with rules and a certain code of conduct. Weber saw bureaucracy as the rational product of social engineering