Marketing and Culture

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As businesses expand into the international markets, it is imperative to better understand why a business, successful in one country, fails in its foreign markets. One major reason is that firms fail to understand and account for national cultural differences.


Academic works on national cultural effects on marketing efforts lead to a split in the theory. (Levitt, 1983; Walters, 1986; Wind 1986; and Ghoshal, 1987) On one side, Levitt (1983), Ohmae (1989), Jain (1989), Yip (1989), and Samiee & Roth (1992) argued for the globalization strategy that predicted consumer tastes would converge and marketing efforts should be directed toward standardization of products and marketing strategies. On the other side, Quelch and Hoff (1986), Douglas and Wind (1987), and de Mooij & Hofstede (2002) contend that standardized global markets are a myth and that each nation requires firms to adapt and customize their products and marketing strategies. Both theories have strong arguments and empirical evidence to support their claims. Proceeding from the premise that retail marketing strategies are a key component to revenue generation for the retailer, this study, especially when it comes to retailing, subscribes to the theory that national culture should have an affect on the marketing strategy of the firm. These strategies can mean the success or failure of the company. To market effectively to the consumer, the marketer must understand what motivates the consumer to purchase at their store and not their competitors.
Numerous authors have studied various market theories and models with res ...
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