In his 1981 exposition, Cox asks for an informed, open-minded critique of International Relations (IR) that had so far depended solely on "problem-solving" theories that obsequiously deviated in no manner from mainstream diagnoses and prognoses, but embraced states as being immutable and the scheme of things-including individual and institutional relationships within and between states, parastatal organisations and the so-called private players-as Kantian Dinge an sich (literally, "things as they are").
Cox's effort in 1983 was to expand on his earlier thesis: to prove how neo-Gramscianism can take apart and syncretise into new understandings and, thus, modalities of action to subvert the power superstructure of the Global Political Economy, a complex trelliswork of governmental, individual and institutional actors. ...
defined as "dominance, especially by one state or social group over others" (Oxford English Dictionary), but is furthermore "understood as an expression of broadly-based consent, manifested in the acceptance of ideas and supported by material resources and institutions" (Bieler and Morton 2003).
The term "world order" was of a different class altogether from Immanuel Wallerstein's "world systems theory", a profoundly disturbing assault on development and modernisation theory, in which he said that he aimed to achieve "a clear conceptual break with theories of 'modernisation' and thus provide a new theoretical paradigm to guide our investigations of the emergence and development of capitalism, industrialism, and national states" (Skocpol 1977).
Wallerstein (1987) declaimed that the world systems theory was "a protest against the way in which social scientific inquiry is structured for all of us at its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century". Criticising the then prevalent bimodal Dependency Theory, which argues in favour of a bipolar metropolis-satellite structure, he held that it was too simplistic to have a functional worldview organised around it: the meaning that can be read into it is that it would have to be, in a sense, future-proof against times that would only get more-and less-interconnected.
In a sense, too, Wallerstein's trimodal world systems theory has been bypassed by current events: mergers between transnational corporations from disparate political dispensations have led to the creation of megacorporations that have turnovers that put the GDP of many developing world economies in the shade. Parastatal organisations, usually non-governmental organisations (NGO), that owe their loyalty either to themselves and their agendas or to