Effective Management Essay

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At first glance, the idea that a manager needs the same coda of skills, will occupy the same basic job role, and will do essentially the same work regardless of employment location seems almost axiomatic. Although minor differences are obvious across differing industries (a manager of a highly specialized technological workforce will almost certainly require enhanced technical aptitude or skills that a manager of a food-service establishment), the essential concepts of managing, that is, leadership, provision of incentives to workers, control over essential costs/labour and the like, remain static across industries and, indeed, worldwide.


Likewise, earlier studies by Stewart (1985) emphasized a "toolbox" of vital management skills, including planning, organizing, decision making, communication, and interpersonal skills, among others. However, Hebard (1996) identifies cultural awareness as a key skill that expatriate managers require, and such a skill does not exist in Stewart's toolbox.
Additionally, the Eastern commercial world sparks unusual dynamics in the workplace and defines its managerial structure in significantly differing roles. Whereas Western workers tend to conceptualize their employment in terms of the organization which employs them (thus viewing the organization as an impersonal other), Eastern societies rely upon the personal relationship as a basic social structure (Hui, Lee & Rousseau, 2004, p. 232). ...
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