Likewise, earlier studies by Stewart (1985) emphasized a "toolbox" of vital management skills, including planning, organizing, decision making, communication, and interpersonal skills, among others. However, Hebard (1996) identifies cultural awareness as a key skill that expatriate managers require, and such a skill does not exist in Stewart's toolbox.
Additionally, the Eastern commercial world sparks unusual dynamics in the workplace and defines its managerial structure in significantly differing roles. Whereas Western workers tend to conceptualize their employment in terms of the organization which employs them (thus viewing the organization as an impersonal other), Eastern societies rely upon the personal relationship as a basic social structure (Hui, Lee & Rousseau, 2004, p. 232). ...Show more