HR managers, for instance, might be foreseeing the organization's enduring hiring needs based on demands of company growth and proficiency requirements. Or they might be increasing organization-wide human resource information systems that trail all of the information concerning employees that used to be stored on paper in file drawers. Or they can be bench marking company HR practices against industry competitors (Konrad, A.M., and Linnehan, F., 1999). All these are big, protracted jobs, and they do not leave HR managers much resource sagging to deal with the fundamental tasks (e.g., hiring, firing, and training etc.) that used to be the restricted area of the HR department.
In Japan, there are different concepts concerning the continued viability of concepts of HRM, shushinkoyo is among those popular concept in large Japanese firms. Kobayashi of Aoyama Gakuin University believes that the three foundations of Japanese human resource management shushinkoyo, nenko joretsu, and kigyo-betsu rodokumiai (long-term employment, seniority system, and enterprise-based unions) are crumbling and that there are most important changes ahead (Kilburn, 1994:45 ). Kobayashi points out that while major corporations can still retain much of the substance of long-term employment by off-loading excess employees to subsidiaries or associates, few now see this as more than a stopgap solution. Noguchi of Hitotsubashi University states that white-collar employees require to get used to the idea that they can lose their jobs (Rosario, 1993:22 ). Noguchi believes that it is a long-term trend that will not go away when the economy picks up.
It is not just employers who are having subsequent thoughts about shushinkoyo. More and more employees themselves have an aspiration to seek new opportunities outside their present company. In Japan a term borrowed from English 'u-turn' refers to the trend of leaving big city jobs to go to smaller towns so as to enjoy a better life-style or freedom from the constraints of working in a large company. The number of employees opting for the 'u-turn' saw a considerable increase from the mid eighties.
Fundamental HR activities in Japan are progressively more being decentralized and handed off to managers like line managers working front-and-center. That is a good thing, for the most part. After all, you are the one who is working with your employees' day in and day out.
Pucik and Hatvany (1983) summarize Japanese HRM strategies as: (1) the development of an internal labor market, (2) company philosophies that stress strong ties between the company and employees and (3) an exhaustive socialization process that emphasizes co-operation and teamwork. The first strategy, the development of an internal labor market, requires the practice of shushinkoyo. As, the Japanese firm recruits fresh graduates with the intention of employing them during the foremost portion of their productive lives. The subsequent strategy is implemented by taking advantage of collectivist tendencies and creating a strong bond between the employee and the company through socialization and the way benefits are structured. The third strategy is achieved by the encouragement of a group-oriented mentality.