Therefore, it won't be an exaggeration to say that finance is the lifeblood of all enterprises. This is particularly so when economics are undergoing structural changes and economic reforms are in the making to introduce greater elements of competitive forces. In a competitive environment managers are faced with a challenge to compete for resources and to find a better utilization of such resources. Finance is a specialized subject in itself but it draws heavily on other related functions like marketing, production, personnel, purchase etc. Drury (2004, p.5) states "Management accounting is concerned with the provision of information to people within the organization to help them make better decisions and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of existing operations"
(Lev, 2001) stated that existing financial accounting standards sharply distinguish between physical and intangible assets. While physical assets (e.g., property, plant, and equipment) are valued on the balance sheet at the price paid to obtain them, less accumulated depreciation, intangible "assets" are expensed as incurred. Accounting is therefore considered an integral part of the knowledge management within an organization. ...
What mix of equity and debt to use
How much financial risk to take
Making a calculated financial decision makes a big difference between a prosperous and growing business and a liability. The prime function of a management executive in a business organization is decision-making and forward planning. Decision making means the process of selecting one action from two or more alternative courses of action whereas forward planning involves means establishing plans for the future. The question of choice arises because resources such as capital, land, labor and management are limited and can be employed in alternative uses. The manager is thus supposed to analyze the past data, current information and the estimates about future predicted as best as possible. This application of economic theory to business management is known as managerial economics. This is micro-economic in character as the unit of study is the company. The following aspects are said to be generally under the ambit of managerial economics;
Demand analysis and forecasting
Cost and production analysis
Pricing decisions, policies and practices
Often a distinction is made between management accounting and financial accounting. Management accounting measures and reports financial and non-financial information that helps managers make decisions to fulfill the goals of the organization. Its focus is on internal reporting. On the other hand financial accounting is considered to have a focus on reporting to external parties. It measures and records business transactions and provides financial statements that are based on the 'Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP)'. Therefore managers are responsible for the financial statements