The results of analysing the case studies have provided great examples of revealing the elements that interprets in consumer's mind from different perspectives. Such that, branding is measured in aspects of tangible and intangible forces as far as the image of the city is concerned. Most importantly, the paper has examined that brand value of a city can only be studied through identifying the psychological way that influences the decision making process, and the overall elements required for branding a city such as the emerging importance of societies.
Moreover, the investigation of branding elements are recommended by the author for further study in order to thoroughly analyse how these elements are incorporated in cities nowadays. Also, examination on competition between cities may provide a vital role of continuing the study in the future.
Marketing is an arena where the basic norm is to promote visibility. Visibility, in turn, depends on positioning which again depends on branding and the equity commanded by the same. ...Show more