For instance, professionals are gaining more say in the running of organizations. Even where governance is by people who own the majority stakes, their own positions and the respect, they command are contingent upon their competence rather than ownership (Ahuja, 2005 880).
"Management is the art of getting things done through other people. Management is the dynamic, life-giving element in every business. Without it the resources of production remain resources and never become production." (Sharma, 2004 11)
This definition emphasizes that the managers achieve organizational objectives getting things done through the employees. Human resource Management is very essential for successful running of an enterprise. It ensures proper use of physical and human resources by deriving the best results. It leads to efficient performance and higher productivity. Human Resource Management is very essential for every organization to make productive use of human physical and financial resources or the achievement of the organizational goals. It helps in determination of objectives. No organization can succeed in tits mission unless its objectives an identified and well denied. Management helps in achieving these objectives by the efficient use of resources.
In management, the term 'manager' means overseeing the subordinates at work by their superiors. It is the function of leading, co-coordinating and directing the work of others to accomplish designated objectives. It refers to the direct and immediate guidance and control of subordinates in the performance of their task (Sharma, 204, p.110).
Role of manager in an Organization from the Onset of the Industrial Revolution
The role of a manager in an organization has been shown below:
Fig. Role of manager (Sharma, 204, p.111)
(a) As Mediator- Manager acts as a mediator between higher-level management and the workers.
(b) As Medium of Communication - manager acts as a medium of communication between higher-level managers and workers. He explains management policies to the workers and conveys the workers' attitudes, opinions, grievances and problems to higher-level management (Silbiger, p.103). In other words, he communicates
(i) To the workers what the management expects from them and
(ii) To the management what the workers want. Thus, manager bridges the gap between the expectations of management and demands of operatives and workers.
(c) As Convertor - Manager acts as a convertor in the sense that he occupies such a key position which turns plans and policies into actual results through the efforts of workers.
(d) As Inspirer - manager acts as an inspirer in the sense that he inspires workers to cooperate and contribute to the best of their capability for the achievement of organizational objectives.
(e) As Leader - Manager acts as a leader in the sense that he influences the workers to work with team spirit for the achievement of organizational objectives. He also provides a cohesive force, which holds the group intact and develops a spirit of cooperation and discipline among the employees.
(f) As Guide and Friend - Manager acts as a guide and friend in the sense that he educates and trains the workers, creates friendly environment and solves the disputes of the workers. In this way, he ensures team spirit, co-operation and discipline amongst the members (Sharma, 2004, p.115)
Thus, the Manager is expected to secure not only the efficiency of operations but also the team spirit, co-o