We argue that the concept of affordance (both perceived and real) carries a mandatory component of utility or purposeful action that influence the usability of online banking services particularly in the UK. Finally, we provide the influential guidelines on design and affordance in the growth of online banking services based on how these three kinds of affordances work together naturally in contextualized internet-banking design or evaluation.
The objective of this research is to conduct a critical review of the literature in the field of design and affordance of the Internet banking sites. Part of this investigation is to evaluate the effects of computer self-efficacy on user's acceptance of Internet banking using TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) as a theoretical framework. The factors that commonly influence customer's decisions to utilize Internet banking are also critically examined. Finally, an analysis is also carried out to understand the issues affecting the customer's usage of internet-banking particularly in the UK.
The relevant part of what any dictionary says about to afford is that it means to yield, to give, or to furnish. In design, an affordance gives or provides something that helps a user do something. For example, the internet-banking site on the bank's website affords a fine view of the available facilities and banking options to choose from. The computer screen presents this fine view. Norman's stages-of-action model (1988) describes the typical course of interaction between a human user and a computer or any kind of machine. During interaction, a user performs cognitive, physical, and sensory actions and requires affordances to help with each. In the work on the User Action Framework by Andre et al. (2001), Andre et al. (2000) and Hartson et al. (1999), based on Norman's model, we have also found a need for all four kinds of affordances in the context of interaction design and usability. It is in that context that we can define the definitions of various affordances. A cognitive affordance is a design feature that helps, aids, supports, facilitates, or enables thinking and/or knowing about something. As a simple example, clear and precise words in a button label could be a cognitive affordance enabling users to understand the meaning of the button in terms of the functionality behind the button and the consequences of clicking on it. A physical affordance is a design feature that helps, aids, supports, facilitates, or enables physically doing something. Adequate size and easy-to-access location could be physical affordance features of an interface button design enabling users to click easily on the button. Since physical affordance occurs with physical objects, we can treat active interface objects on the screen, for example, as real physical objects, since they can be on the receiving end of real physical actions by users. As many in the literature have pointed