The environment, which engulfs an organisation, provides the resources and opportunities for the organizations existence. At the same time, the environment itself imposes sanctions determining what an organization can or cannot do. If an organization is to survive, grow and remain prosperous, if must adaft to the demands of the environment, since these demands are constantly changing, organizations must also change.
The last decade has brought with it a time of totally unprecedented change. In every direction businesses are in turmoil, from computing to financial services, from telecommunications to health change is an accelerating and yet there is fundamental dilemma. People need time get used to change, but there is not anytime anymore. The pace of change is now so fast that business face constant market change and must respond very rapidly if they are to survive. Many don't make it. Evidence suggests that the average corporate life styles may be shrinking because of a mobility to change and adopt fast enough. For this reason managing change has now become a crucial part of competitive edge (Clarke, 2002).
Organisational change is the alternation of work environment in the organisation. It implies a new equilibrium between different components of the organisation technology, structural arrangement, job design and people. Thus organisational change may have following features.
1. When change occurs is any part of the organization, it disturbs the old equilibrium necessitating the development of a new equilibrium depends on the degree of change and its impact on the organization.
2. Any change may affect the whole organization. Some parts of the organization may be affected more, others less; some parts are affected directly, others indirectly.
3. Organizational change is a continuous process.
Newstrom and Davis (1997) have explained the impact of a change in any part of the organization of the total organization. They have illustrated it by comparing an organization to an air filled balloon. They have concluded that the whole organisation tends to be affected by the change in any part of it (Newstrom & Davis, 1997)
However, the change in the organization does not occur purely on mechanical relationship. While managers as a change agent want to bring changes in the organization employees want to maintain a status quo.
Factors in Organizational Change :
Organizational changes are required to maintain equilibrium between various external and internal forces to achieve Organizational goals. Therefore,