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The BAT concept, named as the 'Best Practicable Means', was first used in the Salmon Fishery Act of 1861 in UK national primary legislation. After this, it was used in 1992 for installing industries and factories in North-East Atlantic to ensure the protection of marine environment.
'Permitted processes have to show that they have applied the best available technique (BAT) approach when applying for an IPPC permit'. Considering this statement, a critical evaluation will be done in this paper on the ways pollution is regulated in England and Wales and whether or not BAT should be applied.
BAT is seen to be the most effective way of controlling and reducing the emission of hazardous pollutants into the atmosphere. Following points will throw light on the purpose of BAT (Scottish Executive, 2006) & (EC, 2003).
A relevant example is of petrochemical company in South England .The requirement was to use butadiene from pure butenes for its down-stream processes knowing the fact that butadiene is a pollutant. Since it was a major requirement, they extracted butadiene from butenes using cuprous ammonium acetate. In doing so, 200 tones of ammonia and 140 tones of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were emitted in air. 300 tones of ammonia and 6 tones of copper ran into the systems purifying water (Slater, D.).
Since these amounts were disturbing, the company decided to replace the butene extraction process with a new process named 'Catalytic Hydrogenation Process' which had zero emissions to air during the reduction of butadiene to butene. ...
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