Economies of Scale

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The concept of small is beautiful can hardly be accepted in this globalised economy when there is fierce competition among the firms for marketing similar type of products. At that point one factor plays a key role in keeping the products moving, is its 'price'.


This concept is popularly known as 'Economies of Scale'. Many firms in different sectors of the economy are experiencing the economies of scale by virtue of expanding their economic activities to a greater level. The economies of scale may be internal or external. Internal economies of scale are experienced within the same firm while external economies of scale are experienced in the same industry. In this paper the internal economies of scale are discussed in detail in the Section-I. Subsequently disadvantages of the economies of scale for a firm as well as for the consumers of the firms experiencing economies of scale are described in the section-II and III. Finally the implications of the regulatory authorities on the concept of 'minimum efficient scale' has been described in section-IV.
If the average cost per unit of input falls per unit increase in the output, then the firm is said to be enjoying the internal economies of scale. This in other words it can be expressed as a percentage change in all inputs leads to a greater percentage change in outputs. Here average total cost (ATC) first decreases because fixed cost such as buildings, equipments and management expenses remains constant and have been utilized to their optimum. The total cost is spread over a greater range of outputs. ...
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