According to Kavaler & Spiegel the physicians have a duty to keep all the information from the patients as confidential as possible. The physicians should deal with information without interfering with the code of ethics and adhere to all the legal procedures. There are cases when the physician should not disclose the patient’s confidentiality unless required by the federal law. This can occur when a patient threatens to cause body harm to himself or the other partner. Therefore, the ethical requirements are not a set of rules but acts as a legal procedure.
Health Maintenance Organization (HMOs) assumes fully the risk with the employer, insurer, and oneself. In this type, payments are done on each individual employee or member in a given population in a specific month. The staff model for this type of organization comprises the employees in HMO. Furthermore, they are supposed to be physicians from HMO and can only become specialists after approval. Either a doctor or a nurse administers the cancer drugs and it may require that before some drugs be administered before reapprove.