Although globalization started decades ago, more recent developments have included changes in the economic policies of many countries resulting in more free flow of labour, capital, goods, services, and even some technologies. Information Communication Technology (ICT) development has changed the way business operates. And emerging economies have low labour cost to offer, attracting corporations to modify business organization for the purpose of becoming more competitive with lower cost of manpower. These are all based on the report by the Department of Business Emergence and Regulatory Reforms (BERR, 2008). Customer services, for example, which can be rendered by phone or internet access will cost less if outsourced. In order for enterprises to survive the changes, Pearson, G. and Woodman, P. (2011) clarified the forecast in 2011 as to the impact on UK managers. It was estimated that almost half of all UK managers will be redundant. 1/3 was feeling insecure about their jobs. Change managers have become in demand. But the problem is that good managers are not necessarily effective change managers. New strategies must be learned. Many people must be convinced to voluntarily adapt to forthcoming changes and be prepared for scenarios requiring willingness to change and to learn new ways of getting things done in various parts of the organization. 2. Multiple Alternative Approaches to Change Management Four possible approaches have been identified in managing change: (1) Behavioural Approach, (2) Cognitive Approach, (3) Psychodynamic Approach, and (4) Humanistic Psychology Approach. And each one can be applied in combination with the others. Figure 2 shows how this theory in a diagram created by Cameron, E. and Green, M. (2009, p.14) will look like . Tables and Figures were added after the references to provide a top view presentation of the important elements, and to show the complex implications of change. However, not all can be discussed thoroughly in this article due to constraints. 2.1 Behavioural Approach In the management of change, Douglas McGregor and Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld (1960) introduced their Theory X and Theory Y underlying assumptions about manpower and management. Table A shows the differences between Theory X and Theory Y. Table A – Theory X and Theory Y Assumptions Theory X assumes… People dislike work. They need controlling and direction. They require security. They are motivated by threats of punishment. They avoid taking responsibility. They lack ambition. They do not use their imaginatio
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Article # 1 - The Management of Change: Four (4) Ways 1.Introduction The impact of globalization is being felt by almost all business organizations. Competitiveness was threatened by the availability of lower cost factors of production in other countries and by the provision of technologies in locations where the output will be less expensive yet with high quality…
How to disseminate the gospel in four ways. This study analyzes the four methods of evangelism: the Evangelism Explosion, Lifestyle Evangelism, Friendship Evangelism and Servant Evangelism. A summary of each method, advantages and disadvantages of each method is described in the study.
In the last two decades, several organizations have come to appreciate the potential benefits of planning ahead for change and its sustainability (Guler & David 2008). In order to evaluate the advantages of change and sustainability strategies, this chapter will address the overall change process within an organization and the industry it is operating.
This is evident in the growing number of internationally-operating business firms all over the world run by entrepreneurs of varying race and culture. The information man has successfully rebelled against intercontinental borders and the challenge that confronts him the most, deals with how to fit and blend in the new cultural environment in which their businesses are situated.
What implication dose these have for your organisation, and your own development
Organizational change or change in general can be defined from a variety of points depending on the perception of the user. An individual or employee in an organization may look at a new post or position as a change while higher management may feel it is unimportant.
People need time to get used to change, but there is not anytime anymore. Now the pace of change is so fast that business face constant market change and must respond very rapidly if they are to survive. Many don't make it. Evidence suggests that the average corporate life styles may be shrinking because of a mobility to change and adopt fast enough.
While stressing the relevance of organizational change, change management gurus often quote Charles Darwin, who famously said, “It is not the most intelligent of the species that survive the longest, it is the most adaptable”. The need to adapt to the environment is not just for living organisms, it is for modern organizations as well.
is further mentioned that business has also become a unified, global filed as trade barriers fall, communication becomes faster and cheaper and consumers tastes in everything. Saka (2003) mentioned that there is evidence to suggest that the universal, prescriptive model of
Thus, to fully resolve health problems, we have to counter with all the emotional distress like seeking sympathy, support and later avoiding our current situation. Therefore, there are four main ways of
Even the most stubborn and conservative people have to change themselves at some point of their lives. Human life changes in every step we take. Every next moment of life indeed is an indicator of change. Human identity is an ever changing process that
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