Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you! Try us!

chmistry - Essay Example

Only on StudentShare
Author : melyna29


CHEMISTRY: Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Question 1a Valinomycn utilizes passive type of transport as an antibiotic, metal ions occur as free ions in the blood stream, however valinomycin acts as a carrier for K+ (Potassium ion, it binds on potassium and facilitates their transfer lipid bi-layer since itself is a macro cyclic molecule, thus it’s a cat ion transporter…

Extract of sample

The molecule is "locked" into a conformation with the isopropyl groups on the exterior. It is not actually locked into configuration because the size of the molecule makes it highly flexible, but the potassium ion gives some degree of coordination to the macromolecule (Metzeler 2001) Question 1b Valinomycin is a dodecadepsipeptide, that is, it is made of twelve alternating amino acids and esters to form a macro cyclic molecule. The twelve carbonyl groups are essential for the binding of metal ions, and also for solvation in polar solvent. The isopropyl and methyl groups are responsible for solvation in nonpolar solvents. Along with its shape and size this molecular duality is the main reason for its binding properties. K+ ions are octahedral coordinated in a square bi-pyramidal geometry by 6 carbonyl bonds in this space of 1.33 Angstrom, leading to a 10,000x selectivity for K+ ions. ...
Download paper

Related Essays

Separation of Mixtures of Solids
As can be seen, the total weight of the mixture’s components after separation was less than the initial weight of the mixture. Specifically, a total of 39% of the weights were lost during the experiment. The calculation of which is elaborated below. CALCULATIONS The calculation of the percent loss was as follows: CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION As demonstrated, separation of a mixture of solids into its components can be done by taking advantage of the innate differences of the characteristics of each of the components. Iron is the only metal component of the four, and this was taken advantage of in…
3 pages (753 words)
Processing-structure-property relationships in (TPE-E) nanocomposites
This area of research is extremely promising because such systems possess higher dispersion then conventional organolclays do. Also, it is worth mentioning that examples from both literature and experimentaly achieved data point out that alkyl-ammoniums used as organo-modifiers have limited applications for apolar polymers. Scheme 1: Alkyl-ammoniums used as organo-modifiers For such polymers interactions with clay is usually low and further entropic barriers prevent mixing of an inorganic clay with the desired polymer. In other words, alkyl chain-clay interactions are low. To overcome this…
6 pages (1506 words)
The affects of Agent orange
Talking about the chemical composition of the Agent Orange, it is a 50:50 mixture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (Scheme 1). Scheme 1: Phoxyacetic acids that form Agent Orange (Claus and Walters, 148). Series of studies were undertaken in order to evaluate potential effects of Agent Orange and its production by-products on health. Let alone the mixture that form Agent Orange, 2,4,5-T is highly toxic and there is a substantial amount of evidence regarding its possible effects on health and environment. In late 1960s it was revealed that…
What effect does the brightness of light have on the growth rate of a plant?
Any change in the growth of plants will thus affect the ecosystem, and thus is important to be studied. …
4 pages (1004 words)
Electroanalytical Technique (Voltammetric techniques) critical review
When compared to methods such as chromatography which uses relatively large amounts of sample with low sensitivity, voltammetry techniques will require few amounts of sample while affording high sensitivity. In addition, wide range of concentration can be used in voltammetry. Voltammetric techniques reduces ions at the electrodes which are usually three the working electrode, auxiliary electrode and reference electrode. Given such wide capabilities, voltametric techniques have been amenable to use in biochemical analyses, environmental studies, plating analysis, pharmaceuticals as well as…
8 pages (2008 words)
How Does The Drug Molly Work?
Ecstasy may be called a chemical cousin to Methamphetamine. Other names are Happy Pill, X, TC, Clarity, Love Drug, Adam (The Physiologic (Biologic) Basis of Drug Addiction). The powder may be injected, snores or ingested. The drug is usually used at clubs, discos, and concerts and in other places where people need to be energetic and fearless. The drug MDMA is very dangerous and may have really unknown consequences as sometimes each pill contains different combinations of mixed substances, which have various effects. As a rule the drug makes a person alert. Negative effects of the use may be…
4 pages (1004 words)
the urinary system
The change of color in the urine strip that occurs in the segment of the strip is then compared to a color chart in order to come up with conclusive outcome (Tortora & Derrickson 2010). To complete a conclusive urinalysis, it is imperative to have a clean catch sample which is collected after cleansing the urethral midstream. Such samples collected via these methods are extremely important in urine culture analysis. As a first examination method urinalysis is undertaken macroscopically in order to ascertain the visual properties of the urine sample. Usually, cotton gauze soaked in benzalkonium…
4 pages (1004 words)