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CHEMISTRY: Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Question 1a Valinomycn utilizes passive type of transport as an antibiotic, metal ions occur as free ions in the blood stream, however valinomycin acts as a carrier for K+ (Potassium ion, it binds on potassium and facilitates their transfer lipid bi-layer since itself is a macro cyclic molecule, thus it’s a cat ion transporter…

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The molecule is "locked" into a conformation with the isopropyl groups on the exterior. It is not actually locked into configuration because the size of the molecule makes it highly flexible, but the potassium ion gives some degree of coordination to the macromolecule (Metzeler 2001) Question 1b Valinomycin is a dodecadepsipeptide, that is, it is made of twelve alternating amino acids and esters to form a macro cyclic molecule. The twelve carbonyl groups are essential for the binding of metal ions, and also for solvation in polar solvent. The isopropyl and methyl groups are responsible for solvation in nonpolar solvents. Along with its shape and size this molecular duality is the main reason for its binding properties. K+ ions are octahedral coordinated in a square bi-pyramidal geometry by 6 carbonyl bonds in this space of 1.33 Angstrom, leading to a 10,000x selectivity for K+ ions. ...
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