design shell and tube heat exchanger

High school
Design & Technology
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Shell and tube heat exchanger design Name: Institution: Shell and tube heat exchanger design Introduction Heat exchangers operations are guided by the fact that heat transfer is a product of temperature variation between cold process stream and hot process stream.


Convection and conduction allows heat to pass from hot stream to cold stream from the side of the tube side or from shell side. As temperature variation between the process streams rise, heat exchange rate for every surface area unit also rises. Conversely, heat exchangers per surface are unit drops non-linearly as temperature difference between the two process streams drops. Increasing the effective surface area of the entire system helps in maintenance of the total transfer of heat between two streams although eventually the system reaches a point where extra surface area has no effect on extra heat transfer. The other variable which affects heat exchange in shell and tube exchanger is each process stream’s velocity. This velocity directly contributes to a rise in convection cold process and hot process streams. Raising the velocity also raises heat exchange, more especially, in countercurrent design. Finally, velocity increments are limited by maximum permitted for a specific metallurgy constituting shell or tube. For carbon steel, for instance, velocity cannot exceed 6 ft. /sec. whilst for the case of stainless and high-alloy steel; rate is 12 ft. /sec. for liquids. The three conventional types of shell and tube heat exchangers are parallel, cross flow and countercurrent flow types. The names are derived from the process stream directions in relation to each other. ...
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