MINATURIZATION Name Instructor Institution Course Date Introduction Miniaturization refers to the creation of small scale optical mechanical and electronic devices and products. This implies that miniaturization is a continuous trend that is involved producing several devices…
Advantages of miniaturization Miniaturization is very vital as it has several advantages. It requires low cost, has the ability to accommodate greater density and it is high in speed. The small electronics are very faster as the signals they transmit travel over short distances and the devices do not travel for long distances within the implemented device. Furthermore, packing of small sized devices is quite advantageous as it help reduce the cost incurred in the electronics. For instance, though four times the memory capacity, a 1-megabit DRAM chip which contains 256-kilobit DRAM is less costly as compared to a product of same space. The number of chips on a system determines the total cost of the circuit therefore, 1-megait of DRAM used reduces the probable number of memory chips in the long run reducing the prices as compared to a four 256 kilobit DRAM in use. In addition, the prices of logic devices have gone down due to the greater integration and reduction in the size of the transistors. Miniaturization is also vital as it has the ability to create new markets through enabling new and advanced applications. For instance, through development of the microprocessors which is a very small component in an integrated circuit has led to expansion of markets for personal computers. The flat panel displays with the improved packaging of chips have contributed to the advancement of battery-powered computers. This has been one of the functional markets that miniaturization has created. In addition, the reduction of cellular telephones and computers into small components has led to the merging of these devices to a cordless appliance which can easily link the whole world through network. For instance, the application of miniaturization is evident in companies such as Nippon Electric Company which offers laptops that have a cellular phone. This laptop is available in Japan though countries such as America are also coming up with this technological change in miniaturization. Disadvantages of miniaturization Miniaturization has several side effects that are very difficult to handle. For instance, miniaturization produces a lot of noise. The quality of image suffers the soaring loud noise which comes from miniaturization of the varied pixel sizes. Errors from the registering photons and signaling process in reading out of the CCD phase leads to the production of noise. The different pixels differ in time and due to the varied sensitivity. Thus, there is a big difference in the amount of photons that are transformed to the electrical charge. More so, photons are always changing with change in the pixels at different times. However, if the photons fail to arrive noise must be produced in the process. If the pixels reduce then reducing noise becomes more difficult. There is high amount of photons arriving if the pixel is small in size. The energized or small pixels contain small energy difference as compared to huge pixels. This has made it difficult for one to easily distinguish noise from signals. Image noise in low light is severe while signals are lower. Therefore, amplifying weak signals leads to production of noisy pictures. Increase in miniaturization leads to increase in noise which causes a lot of waste on the area of the chip. Secondly, miniaturization leads to diffraction. Diffraction in miniaturization occurs when a wave takes its way or passes near an obstacle resulting to deflection of light. The normal dispersion of light is linear and involves photons spreading out near ...
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