6 18 Conductometric biosensor 19 Surface acoustic wave-based sensors 20 Bibliography 20 Farhan A.(2008 ).Nanobiosensors .American Society of Civil Engineers.Methods Mol Biol. Pp.115-26. 24 Further reading 24 Palchetti I, Laschi S, Mascini M. (2010). Electrochemical biosensor technology: application to pesticide detection. Universita degli Studi di Firenze. Italy. 25 Background/introduction Nanotechnology advances are opening development for the biosensors on micron size features that are suitable on detection of molecules in biological sciences. Based on the size micro is added onto the biosensor to indicate the scale. Development of biological sensors for water industry is experiencing growth on the two decades past (Lim et al 2005). The progress on the developments in nanotechnology provides the nano-materials (Vaseashta 2005). Nanoscale materials show extraordinary electrical and optical as well as mechanical properties in comparison to their counterpart. Sensors using these materials interact with the cells such as bacteria, protozoa and virus as well as proteins, antibodies. They also interact with chemical species to produce a signal. These signals are converted to property with a measurable response such as current or light intensity etc. which may be amplified or processed and even stored for the analysis (Erickson et al. 2008). Objectives The main objective of the study include; -To use reduced graphene oxide to detect cytochrome c. - To describe why reduced graphene oxide is used as a detection platform for cytochrome c (protein) using the liquid gated method Literature review The main applications for the biosensors are focused on the water safety for detecting waterborne pathogenic organisms. Diseases from pathogens that are water borne give a great challenge in developing and developed countries. According WHO (2005), World Health Organization estimated deaths in year 2005 of about 1.6 million on consequences diseases that are water borne. These risks have not been completely in elimination with best practices of water treatment in this industry. The predominant techniques identified waterborne disease causing pathogens and rely on culture based practices that are selective and also time consuming. A study conducted by Farhan (2008) reveals that, Biosensors meet most requirements hence leading to highly sensitive and specific as well as a rapid platform in detecting the waterborne pathogens. Studies have reported on biological molecules techniques and also transduction techniques on various pathogens (Farhan 2008) .At present very few assays meeting the requirements for assay time and also detection limit. The high percentage applications of biosensors in food industry are on development of the portable detection platform (Arora et al 2006). In Consideration of the diverse and complex environmental samples and wide range on environmental applications and also economical benefits that are low. Presently more need is of portable biosensors that have rapid detection in waterborne pathoge
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Liquid gated biosensor using reduced graphene oxide and silicon dioxide substrate as a detection platform for cytochrome c (protein) using the liquid gated method Name: Name: Tutor: Date: Objectives 2 The main objective of the study include; 3 Characteristics required in a biosensor 4 Biosensors are used in food analysis 4 Carbon based biosensor 5 Electrochemical biosensors 6 Surface Plasmon resonance biosensor 7 Surface acoustic wave-based sensors 9 Graphene 9 Reduced grapheme oxides 10 Cytochrome c 10 Binding mechanism for reduced graphene oxide and cytochrome c applied 12 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide 12 Structures and stages of EDC 12 Liquid gate modulated nano-sensors exh…
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