Design & Technology
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Summary of Readings The First Chime of Technology in Modern Human Civilization In his book “Technics and Civilization”, Lewis Mumford 1934, argues that the development of time keeping technologies in the Benedictine monasteries was the first expression of technology converting human civilization into a mechanical civilization that sharply contrasts with to the then prevailing ideas and culture of human civilization (1).


Regular prayers and devotions were part of the Christian religious processes for the welfare of the faithful and it was this formed the basis of the development of timekeeping technology and its dominance of our current capitalistic societies. It was not that time keeping was not there earlier, but the development of the clock as an expression of new timekeeping technologies removed the vagaries of nature that inhibit regulatory and order in the pervious time keeping technologies. Starting from the fourteenth centuries clock towers emerged in cities and towns to dominate life the life of their citizens (1). Other technologies may have come and may also lay claim to be all pervasive in human civilization, but there is no technology that has pervaded every niche of human presence and dominated the activities of humankind. The orderly punctual existence brought on by the mechanical clock is not in keeping with basic nature of humankind and yet, modern civilization remains a slave to the chimes of the mechanical clock. The regular chimes of mechanical time in seconds and minutes are in disharmony with the irregular nature of the human body, yet in modern civilization, basic human organic functions are controlled by this mechanical time. ...
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