Extraneous cognitive load refers to the extra load presented in the form of input which is irrelevant to the topic primarily being addressed in the learning process. Germane cognitive load is one which facilitates the learning by association or sequencing the sensory inputs into meaningful units for the learner. Why should designers focus on working memory? Designers should focus on the working memory because it is that part of the memory where the information is held for a few seconds and organized into rational structures, which if reinforced with germane cognition can lead to a permanent impression in the long term memory, the latter being permanent in nature (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Working memory cannot hold more than 4-7 units during an interval of time and the visual artist should be able to identify the best visual and auditory inputs, structured into chunks, to have the maximum cognitive effect. Moreover, it is the working memory faction of human cognition where the information processing takes place. The auditory and the visual channels also act in cohesion at this juncture for maximum impact (Pavio, 1990). Moreover, the episodic buffer is also created in the working memory area where the integration of visual and auditory inputs takes place (Baddeley, 2000). What is the relationship between selection, organization, and integration and figure-ground, hierarchy, and closure? The information processing theory suggests that the sensory input is processed selectively in the working memory where it gets organized into rational cues which interact with previous individual impressions’ and memory to form a cognitive pattern which may or may not be taken up by the long term memory. Selection, therefore involves filtration of the received sensory inputs in order to unburden the brain from information load. The subject involuntarily even selects the information which he or she is not at all aware about previously and this should be the focus of concentration for a creative visual designer. The intended informational input should therefore be structured in a manner so that it is aimed at the normal grasping or perceiving capability of the human brain. Organization of the provided inputs takes place according to the preexistent knowledge and the ability of the learner to grasp the meaning of the visual and auditory inputs into meaningful patterns which can be sustained for a long term impact. Integration of the provided visual and auditory inputs takes place in the working memory where they act upon simultaneously. Verbal and visual inputs when provided together are better integrated than when provided following each other. The figure ground principle suggests that the human mind is structured to perceive and separate the figure elements from the ground elements i.e. particular shapes elicit particular responses without going into the details of the object. Hierarchical organization of information takes place according to categorization of information into layers according to the degree of importance placed on them. When sensory inputs are organized into a perceptible pattern, the whole information is more than the sum of its parts as suggested by the gestalt theory. In that case, a person with past experience can visualize the ‘whole’
Chapter 3 Focus Questions What are three types of cognitive load? The cognitive capacity of the human brain is its ability to process the sensory input information it receives primarily through visual and auditory perception, and secondarily from other sensory capabilities such as taste, touch and smell, and the mental energy required to do so…
Over the last decade, the meaning of the word font has changed to mean typeface. Q. Are there rules of thumb that govern the use of type? The only rule of thumb when using type is the “it depends” rule. This is because when using type, the decision, and choice of which typeface to use entirely depends on the designer.
Choosing color for instruction depends on three main principles namely; selection, integration, and organization. The three principles are explained in depth below. Selection The colors to be used must make important information that is to be conveyed stand out.
Describe the music and discuss its function. The jalolu (plural for jali) serve three important functions as generally summed up as providing music for important social occasions for their patrons. Specifically, the jalolu, the musicians of the Mande tribe are singers, dancers and recorders of history.
The medium of communication has a great potential in ensuring the success of the communication and allowing the sender to pass his information to his audience without the fear of misinterpretation. The development of information technology tools has made it quite possible for employees and managers to communicate with each other efficiently and effectively, thus enhancing production in the organization.
However, nature controls things that surround it, and just as nature, Gould claims that AIDS spares some people to have continuity in generation.
In the article, Gould explains how the human brain together with growth in
He advances and says that the concept of hard work is substitute for the aspect of understanding (Perry 44). Perry also analyzes the situation that arises between the children and the teachers. He points it out clearly
Google has an open systems model with human resource values. It swaps employees with P&G because of its openness to learning and the appeal of P&G’s advertising expenses. Employee swapping produces risks of reduced morale and poor alignment of cultures.
l, networks, and established brands as large firms, especially multinational companies, so they have to resort to more affordable marketing strategies.
Large businesses have advantages over small firms that strengthen their marketing strategies, although small businesses can