The very large cost of MRI machines and their large size and specialized installation requirements acts as a deterrent to wider use of this technology. There is work underway that promises reduced costs and size of MRI machines, especially in the form of specialized machines for the scan of extremities such as wrists and ankles. The success of this effort could lead to wider use of the technology. Keywords: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, diagnostics, magnetic pulse 1. Introduction: The first Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) was produced in 1973 and the procedure has now become a rapidly growing medical diagnostic tool for the medical profession. Over 30 million MRI procedures were done in the US in 2010 and new advances in technology is making specialized MRI procedures available for screening for a wider range of diseases and medical conditions each year. The human body can be considered to be essentially made up of three types of material; bone which is hard and made up of minerals such as calcium, soft tissue including muscles, flesh, blood vessels and organs such as liver, kidney, heart and lungs and fluids including blood and air. The field of diagnostic imaging started with the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Rontgen. Even today, over two-thirds of medical diagnostics are done using X-rays. X-rays are ionizing radiations and the image is captured on a photographic film. X-ray images are good for viewing bones but the resolution for viewing soft tissue is often inadequate. The invention of Computed Tomography (CT) sought to address this limitation by using digital images in place of photographic plate and to manipulate the images for contrast and brightness to distinguish various types of soft tissue from each other (Ostensen, 2001). Ultrasound or ultrasonography was developed as the safer technology for viewing soft tissue and body fluids in the 1950s and 1960s. In this technique, sound waves of frequency between 3.5 MHz and 7 MHz are generated using a transducer or “probe”. Sound waves passing through human body get reflected when it passes from one type of tissue to the other. The reflected sound wave is picked by a microphone built into the same probe housing as the signal generator and a computer image of the internal tissue is created in real time. The medical professional can move the probe over the body area to see the changes in the image and also freeze the image for recording. Using ultrasound, it is possible to see images of blood flow through arteries and veins and see heart valves opening and closing. Ultrasound equipment is comparatively inexpensive and is safe as compared to X-rays. The interpretation of the ultrasound images however requires trained medical professionals and there is high risk of incorrect diagnosis (Ostensen, 2001). Ultrasound has no known side effects and is safely used even for examination of an unborn fetus. Ultrasound waves do not pass through air and are therefore not effective for examination of the stomach or the intestines. They also cannot penetrate bone and therefore are not used for areas with bone covering such as the skull. In obese patients, excess body fat sometimes makes ultrasound examination difficult as the reflected sound
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abstract Magnetic Resonance Imaging has emerged as an important medical diagnostics tool in the last 20 years. The procedure consists of exposing the human body to a short duration pulse of very strong magnetic field. Under the influence of this magnetic field, Hydrogen protons in the water and fat molecules in the human body which are randomly aligned orient themselves in the direction of the magnetic field and spin on their axes…
FDA, 2012). The technology makes use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties to image atom nuclei within the body. The human body is a “magnet” by virtue of the fact that it has ionic hydrogen that has a positive charge and a magnetic spin. However, this magnetic spin does not make humans magnetic because these protons spin in a haphazard manner, which cancels out the magnetic properties held by each ion (Hendee & Christopher, 1984).
The cartilage of the knee comprises of lateral and medial menisci, both serving the purpose of providing structural integrity during instances of tension (Jette & Jette, 1996). Sometimes these menisci are referred to semi-lunar cartilages; a name attributed to their shapes.
Conventionally, in forensic investigation and autopsy, the use of full-body radiography is well established and routinely applied to document “fractures, injury patterns, occult injuries, and foreign body and metallic fragmentation localization” (Levy, Abbott, Mallack et al, 2006, p.522).
Dual-modality image registration and fusion involves integrating anatomic (computed tomography, CT or magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), and functional (positron emission tomography, PET) imaging modalities. Despite maintaining an exclusive standing in clinical and preclinical imaging as advanced diagnostic tools and research platforms, they suffer from several shortcomings.
There are varieties of techniques and machines which can be used in the creation of activities and structures inside ones body (Armstrong, Wastie and Rockall, 2010). Types of diagnostic imaging include CT scans, X-rays, MRI scans, Ultrasound and nuclear medicine scans.
MRI is capable to generate clearer and more detained images as compared to the X-ray or Ultrasound scanning techniques. The physics behind the MRI scanning involves the complex nuclear physics and magnetic directivity and resonance. A MRI scanning device is fairly a large device, which is able to hold a person in it.
It has been documented that early diagnosis of a meniscal tear is pivotal in ensuring a positive outcome in such clinical events. Relevant anatomy of the meniscus is important in understanding this phenomenon better. Originating from the geniculate arteries, the meniscal arteries supply only the 25% of the cartilage matter of the peripheral meniscus, where the central area of the menisci receive nutrition from the surrounding synovial fluid.
and therefore referred me to a neurologist who carried out magnetic resonance image, MRI scanning of my spinal cord and brain which led to suspected multiple sclerosis, MS, infection thus my journey with the disease began. Borrowing from my experience and supported by various