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Literature Review

This has resulted to researchers and educational scholars into seeking the appropriate wait-time that teachers should give to ELL students. ELL students pose a challenge because of their language-learning disability (Becker and Goldstein, 2011). Understanding of concepts and subject ideas, systematic ideas reflection, critical thinking, and content comprehension of an ELL student on a subject determines the response that a student gives to a question. However, effective learning for learners does not solely contribute to response given by ELL students. Wait time has a substantial effect on the response that an ELL student gives to a classroom question. Existing research by (2013) classifies silence time in a classroom into eight categories including: student-pause time, within-teacher presentation pause time, within-student’s response pause-time, post-teacher question time, student pause-time, post-student responsive wait time, teacher pause-time, student task-completion work-time and impact pause time. Despite the detailed wait-time classification, there has been no concrete conclusion on the specific wait-time required for elementary ELL students to respond to questions. ...
ed student participation through volunteering more answers that are appropriate, increase in the analysis and synthesis of the context , which results to students giving evidence-inference responses that are more speculative( Cooper and Irizarry, 2013). Increased wait-time contributes to improved students’ self-confidence in responding to questions, increased rate of student asking questions on clarity as well as higher students’ achievement. Simply by increasing wait time, especially to students who have to translate the question into their mother tongue and then critically evaluate the questions to give a response, teachers can influence the quantity of correct responses to questions (Cooper and Irizarry, 2013). According to Mohr & Mohr (2007), a teacher should allow sufficient wait time to support ELL students to switch from hearing in a foreign language into reasoning and thinking in their first language, and then giving the response to the question. Additionally, increased wait time has proved to enhance the cognitive techniques applied by a student to give responses. Relationship between Increased Wait-Time and Critical Thinking Several studies indicate that teacher’s wait time is often associated with the thoughtfulness and comprehension of a student answer to classroom questions (Huntley, 2008). Notably, teachers do not give sufficient time for students to internalize, think critically, and se comprehensive knowledge to respond to classroom questions. Teachers who only give elementary English Language Learners (ELL) students a few seconds to respond to classroom questions evoke student recall on a subject rather than critical thinking (Cruz and Thornton, 2013). In many occasions, ELL students translate the question into the first language to understand it ...Show more


Literature Review: “Wait-Time” for ELL Course: Instructor: Submission Date Literature Review: “Wait-Time” for ELL Students Introduction Wait time conception has become a main aspect in the research of elementary English Language learners teaching in the 21st century…
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