Learning styles - the Theory of Multiple Intelligences Date Introduction Generally, learning refers to the process of modifying existing or acquiring new knowledge, behaviours, values, preferences, and skills, and it entails synthesizing various forms of information at a certain time…
In the modern education setting, students are aware of what they are expected to learn in a particular unit of study. Learning styles also determine the learning assessment system used in measuring whether a student has learnt what is expected of him or her after a certain period. Based on the learning styles, assessment of students involves comparing a student’s performance with set standards and communication of results and learning outcomes to the parents and students. There exists numerous learning styles that encompass various approaches of explaining how students learn (Reza and Reza, 2010). In order to understand learning styles, this paper will Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a learning style. Howard Gardner originally developed the theory of multiple intelligences in the year 1983. Gardner viewed intelligence as the ability and capacity in solving problems and fashioning products that are valued in cultural setting(s). He believed that there was need for paradigm shift in learning (Gardner and Seana, 2006). According to him, intelligence of a human being should not be equated with linguistic intelligence or logical-mathematical only. Gardner’s theory emerged from recent studies and research that have found out that students possessed different minds and therefore have the ability of learning, performing, comprehending, and remembering in different ways (Gardner, 1999). Gardner developed a list of intelligences that all individuals are able to know. The list argues that individuals differ in the strength of these intelligences, as well as in ways through which such intelligences are combined and invoked in solving different problems, carrying out diverse tasks and progressing in different domains. He argues that this new paradigm challenges the conventional educational system which makes an assumption that all individuals have the ability of learning the same materials in the same way and that a uniform, universal measure suffices while testing students’ learning (Gardner and Seana, 2006). The theory of multiple intelligences as developed by Gardner further postulates that the educational system is biased towards linguistic and logical-quantitative modes of instruction and assessment (Gardner, 1999). Based on this background, Gardner developed a set of intelligences that are more likely to be effective in learning and education in general. The first one is Visual-spatial intelligence; it involves thinking in terms of physical space. Learners who possess this intelligence are very aware of their environments and they like drawing and reading maps. Sailors and architects are example of people possessing this intelligence (Gardner and Moran, 2006). The second one is Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, which involves effective use of the body. It has been found out that individuals possessing this intelligence have immense sense of body awareness and are very comfortable with movements. Dancers and athletes are examples of people possessing this intelligence. The third intelligence is musical intelligence which largely relates to sensitivity to rhythm and sound. Learners who possess this intelligence are sensitive to sounds in their environment and love music. They mostly use tools such as stereo, musical instruments, multimedia and CD-ROM (Reza and Reza, 2010). In addition, Gardner identifies Linguistic intelligence that involves ability of effectively using words. ...
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The Multiple Intelligence (MI) Theory of Gardner can be viewed as the mechanism that stimulates learners to encourage positive response from learners, skills, and knowledge related to healthy living and the factor that unite social workers, community advocates, educators, and school administrators to advance health education (Sternberg & Williams, 1998).
A teacher is most probably using those in his/her own teaching. However, students are benefiting most in the classroom where a teacher is employing tasks and assignments to develop different intelligences. Importance of multiple intelligences can be better described with the help of Howard Gardner statement: It is of the utmost importance that we recognize and nurture all of the varied human intelligences, and all of the combinations of intelligences.
The theory of multiple intelligences is one of cognitive functioning which proposes that all people have capacities in the eight different intelligences. The intelligences work differently for different people in different complexities. Gardner does not believe that intelligence can be assessed by a mere number as the Intelligence quotient did.
According to Lazear (2003), the theory has the capability of improving theoretical knowledge, cultivating constructive attitudes toward learning and instruction, boost involvement or participation and satisfaction in classrooms, and build more reliable learning experiences.
The theory holds that the tradition understanding of intelligence which is based on I.Q. testing is limited in describing the intelligence of individuals. According to Gardner (2006) the multiple intelligence theory is a diversion form tradition I.Q. view of intelligence which is psychometric and defines intelligence as a person’s ability to provide accurate answers to intelligence tests.
Gardner’s theory renders the conventional means of judging an individual’s intelligence by means of specific IQ tests meaningless in that they are only a tool to measure one or two of the numerous shades of
Gardner illustrated seven issues for intelligence behavior: unique developmental progression, presence of savants, prodigies or other exceptional individuals, supported by psychometric results or experimental psychology, brain isolation potential due to
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