Learning is a comprehensive process that relies on learners’ potentials as well as their environment.Favorable external environments promote learning and developmental theories facilitate moderation of the environment …
Established educational programs play an important role in influencing learning processes and program components, moderated by learning and developmental theories, empowers learning processes to success. Examples of learning theories are social cognitive orientation theory, transformational learning theory and self-directed learning theory while Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is an example of developmental theories. Class sessions, tutoring, advising, program evaluation, and mandatory assessment are examples of program components and this paper reviews them subject to learning theories and developmental theories. Transformational learning theory and educational learning components Transformational learning theory is core to adult learning program. The theory’s core construct is the learning approach in which adults transform their existing knowledge, opinions, and assumptions and assume a more open minded and comprehensive scope of their experiences. The theory relies on meditations, based on positive and negative experiences that motivate an individual and those experiences that develop surprises to adult learners, leading to social change that may be evident in reduced poverty level in the society, enhanced knowledge base in the learners, or reduced level of oppression. Transformational learning also relies on learners’ rationale from which new knowledge constructs are developed from experiences (Merriam, Caffarella and Baumgartner, 2012; Westby, 2007). Class session defines the traditional learning process in which a teacher teaches students belonging to a given class. It is a common approach to adult education, especially because of fixed schedules converges learning time, and constrained facilities. The foundation of class session exposure of the learner to new knowledge and this identifies with diversified aspects of the transformational learning theory. Exposure to new knowledge offers a basis for reflection into the learner’s experience, a process that triggers the transformational learning theory’s aspect of reconstruction of perspectives. Developed knowledge in class sessions also offer a benchmark for determining the motivational aspect of an experience as lower benchmarks would enlist positive attitude while high benchmarks would identify discouragements in a learner’s experience. Interactive class sessions also exhaust learners’ perspectives and rationale to transform approach to knowledge development and to changed held perspectives (King, 2009; Boylan, Bliss and Bonham, 1997). Unlike class sessions, tutoring focuses on small number of students per educators and may sometimes be done on a one-on one basis. Its scope is similar to the scope of class session and therefore identify with transformational learning theory. The tutor, in a facilitator role, exposes learners to constructs that evoke reflection and meditation upon experience to motivate new perspectives. Learnt knowledge from the program component also establishes standards that motivate learners into reflections and meditations. Consequently, tutoring identifies with the transformational learning theory through its concepts that promote reflection, among learners, of their experience, meditation upon the experiences, and integration of the experiences and learnt concepts for a new perspective. Advisory and counseling initiatives are other major components of educational programs and apply to adult education. The adult learner prefers an active approach to knowl ...
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