Operant conditioning falls in the category of behavioral learning theories. Another theorist named Jerome Bruner came up with his own theory of learning which is recognized as discovery learning theory and this theory falls in the category of cognitive learning theory. In this theory he stated that learning takes place when an individual comes in contact with a particular stimuli, he forms a perception regarding that stimuli and then acts according to the formed perception (Leonard, 2002, p.97). The perception they develop regarding a stimuli is dependent upon the learner’s environment. A third category of learning theory is humanistic approach of learning and one of the most famous theories of this approach is Experiential Learning theory provided by Carl Rogers (Leonard, 2002, p.68). He stated that there are two kinds of learning taking place one is cognitive which is meaningless in nature and the second kind of learning is experiential which is significant. He stated that experiential learning is very important as it is backed by a need and whenever an individual has to satisfy a need he may resort to learning. For example: a person is motivated by the need of driving, this motivation will make him learn. Similarities and Differences The main similarity between Skinner’s and Bruner’s theory is that they propose the humans are passive learners and they will not learn until they come in contact with a stimuli (Hitchcock, 2003, p.232). Another similarity between these two theories is that an instructor is required to teach the respondents. The main similarity between Roger’s and Bruner’s theory is that individuals learn by themselves and they do not need a third person to help them learn. Another major similarity between theories provided by Roger’s and Bruner’s theory is that individuals learn first and then they use these learned behaviors. None of the three theorists have emphasized on the age of the learners in their theory, thus they accept that learning can take place at any age. There are several differences between these theories, in case of Skinner’s theory an instructor has to provide an environment for learning and children learn through their experience with rewards and reinforcements while in Bruner’s case the instructor is merely a facilitator who provides the subjects with the opportunities to learn on their own. Skinner’s theories have been tested on animals, while Bruner’s theory has been tested on human beings, thus Bruner’s theory is more applicable to humans. The theory provided by Roger is quite different from the theories of Skinner and Bruner in the sense that Roger believes that learning can not take place without a need, while the other two assert that students are pushed to learn. Application in Nursing All three theories are quite applicable in various scenarios where learning takes place as well in various fields. Nursing staff and officers can even use these theories to manage their day to day activities. Example for Operant Conditioning: A patient insists on not taking medicine and continues to watch television; the nurse turns the television off. The patient gets irritated and wants the television to be turned on; the nurse tells her that if she takes the medicine the television will be turned on, so she quickly takes the medicine. Now whenever the patient insists on not taking her medicine, the nurse staff switches off the television box (Berman, 2008, p.490). Example for Roger’
Prominent Learning Theory Name: Prominent Learning Theory Summary B.F. Skinner provided the operant conditioning theory in which he stated that operant conditioning takes place when reinforcement of a particular behavior is conducted along with specific stimuli…
Hence, he asserted that learning can happen by observing others. His theory is also known as observational learning or modelling. The basic tenets of his theory encompass three concepts. Firstly, observation is very crucial in learning. This was evident in his popular Bobo doll experiment wherein children manifestly imitated the behaviour of other people (Sims, & Manz, 1982).
Theoretical standards serve as philosophical underpinnings in the process of teaching. A teacher will design her classroom instruction depending on the theory that she chooses to adopt. The teacher must take into consideration the needs of the population of students that she is handling in choosing what theory to adopt for that specific topic.
To learn means to experience a lifelong process of acquiring information and skills from the people around us (Butts & Rich, 2011, p. 203). Nurses utilized various learning theories that they used in the health care setting as part of their continuous professional education.
Therefore, leadership management is the capability managers to use leadership skills in their management departments. Many people claim that it is a difficult task being a leader and a manager. They argue that these are two different jobs claiming that managers’ role is to ensure that work is perfect by emphasizing rules and regulations of the company are adhered to and making necessary decisions.
Some of the greatest personalities recognized and embraced for their achievements have a testimony to tell on the long journey to success. One of the personalities who is celebrated for his industrious and innovative nature is Steven Jobs. Steve Jobs is a popular character who has been mentioned by many authors for his entrepreneurial skills.
Adult learning and development theories applied to military education Introduction Learning is a comprehensive process that relies on learners’ potentials as well as their environment. Favorable external environments promote learning and learning and developmental theories facilitate moderation of the environment for maximum utility in delivery of educational services.
This ideological conflict causes severe problem in the lives of students in that the initial aims of visual culture and its significance lacks congruence (Duncum, 2003). When the educational boundaries are questioned and the local traditions are critically investigated, then education art becomes more relevant to the learners.
A summary of the research shall be presented at the end of the paper, which would summarize the research and derive the results from the studied literature.
This paper assesses the unique and complementary ability of childhood intelligence and learning-related behaviour to explain variation in children learning appropriate behaviour both in the society and in the classroom.
Personal Construct and Skinner learning theories show how human interpersonal relationships are shaped through observation and projection about the future.
Behavioral conditions, environmental changes and cognitive conditions determine how an individual behaves. Expectation
The main focus of the paper is on the origin, development and, most importantly, on the end of Cold War. The Cold War was the economic, ideological, and geopolitical conflict between two global powers, the Soviet Union and the United States, which began in 1946 after the end of the World War II and lasted until collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
11 pages (2750 words)Assignment
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