Instructional Development Skills and Competencies for Post-Secondary Faculty-Designers Developing Online Courses Name: Institution: CHAPTER TWO: ADVANCING THE SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE BASE Introduction Online education offers convince and flexibility than the conventional classroom education…
Several literatures exist on growth and development online education (Carroll and Burke, 2011) but there is limited study on the skills and competence of the faculty designers. Development and use of information and communication technology has brought significant changes in education sector especially distance and online education (Arinto, 2013). Uptake of Online courses has also been on increase due to its flexibility and convenience. However there exist a gap between course content development and delivery of the course content to the students, interaction of the involved students and use of technology. According the National Center for Educational Statistics, Universities and other higher institution offering has been on the rise (Carroll and Burke, 2011). Since 1990s education institutions have been taking advantage of development in use of internet and technology to supply their students with course materials in traditional face to face mode of learning as well as online courses. Students are also embracing the use of technology (Carroll and Burke, 2011). In the initial stages of online education involved only the course materials but this has changed over time and therefore the need for effective online education programmes. Recognizing the basic skills and competencies required for the faculty designers to develop online courses, including best practices and distinguishing features, could help to improve the quality of such courses. The online education practices ranging from use of technology, competence of the lectures, course materials and communication tools affects the outcome of the courses in different ways (Lee, Dickerson and Winslow, 2012). Instructional design theory will help in development of online education programmes that satisfy the needs of the students with references to psychological principles for student focused education system by American Psychological Association (APA). The competence of the tutors and course designers as well as best practices will ensure that the online education programmes meet the needs of the students as well as job market. Growth and development of online courses Uptake of online courses has been on increase since 1990s due to development of information and communication technology which is integrated with online application to ensure effective delivery of quality learning material and interaction of the lectures and concern student as well as other student across different geographical location. The teachers and the students through electronic media which in some cases is real time rather that meeting in conventional classrooms (Suarez-Brown at el, 2012). The online courses are flexible and accessible across the globe but they are faced with several challenges since the students interacts with the lectures in delivering the course content, delivering the tests and assignment, evaluation of students personal attributes and communication skills. Online courses allow the students to study while still on employment or internship which is a requirement for most courses thus providing a excellent opportunity for the students and the lecturers. The increase in the number of higher learning institutions offering online courses can be associated with its flexibility and accessibility, high success rate of online student compared to conventional classroom students and extensive marketing of online course to different ...
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It is significant because if the teacher is not comfortable with the activities, it disrupts not only the flow of classroom activities, but also influences the students’ appreciation of science (McDonald, 1992; Lin & Chen 2002). Thus, teachers’ perception, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the subject matter play a crucial role in shaping the concepts of the subject and the approach in which it is delivered (Lin & Chen, 2002).
The oil industry, unfortunately, did not see the Exxon Valdez as sufficient precedent to have prompted the development of a standard crisis prevention and mitigation protocol to apply in the future. Taken together, oil and natural gas pipeline accidents have occurred over decades, often resulting in a significant number of fatalities.
Communicative strategies emphasise giving meaning and seeking clarification (Rubin 1988) and for this reason it may be included as part of O’Malley and Chamot (1990) socio-affective strategies. In this study the level of frequency with which participants used metacognitive, cognitive and socio-affective strategies were explored.
Females, meanwhile, generally showed much greater correlation between low reading achievement scores and preference for multi-learning – a finding also observed among both male and female eighth graders, and also for the whole sample. Moreover, in terms of the influence of learning style preference on reading achievement, it was found likewise that neither gender or grade level was found to have much effect on RAAF or FT scores, nor did these scores affect VARK7G learning style categories.
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It is important that participants of the study understand the intent of the research study and the guidelines of the study as a voluntary participant for this will help enforce ethical practices. Flory and Emmanuel (2004) indicated valid informed consent reduces the chance for unethical research.
However, recent years have seen mounting violence and threats of separatism based on the oil and gas resources of the nation. More prominently, the Kurdish camp to Iraq’s north is eyeing separatism within a realm of possibility by colluding with regional elements to frame a free Kurdistan.
Information about the school district from where data gathering was conducted is explained. The target area for the study was Oklahoma City, wherein 540 public schools were enlisted for participation in the study.
The difference between the North and South Carolina was based upon the notion of the racial tension. Since this part of the country had many slaves therefore the tension started to emerge between the whites as well as blacks and resultantly
It is a huge business and engages large number of peoples with variety of skill and talents in order to offer the customers with wide range of fashion apparels. The front line customer service staff, which includes “Designers, new product developers,
6 Pages(1500 words)Literature review
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