Chapter 3: theoretical framework 3.1 Introduction This chapter describes the development of e-learning and the knowledge- building process where learners and teachers can better understand the learning process in the virtual world, facilitated by computers and Internet…
The second is an evolution of pedagogy from a system based on individualised learning to collaborative learning (social constructivism).These change are further explained in this paper as part of an emerging universal knowledge-building approach that envisages to give equal access and equal authority to all, in the process of knowledge building. This chapter presents the theoretical framework concentrating on e-learning and the associated theories. The focus is placed on the knowledge building theory presented by Scardamalia and Bereiter in 2006. But in addition, other theories are also discussed and integrated including the knowledge building theory of Girvan and Savage (2010), the blended e-learning theory of Sharpe et al. (2006) and the “participatory cultures” approach of Haythornthwaite and Andrews (2007). The theoretical framework presented is one that anchors itself in collaborative learning and computer and internet-centered knowledge building (Scardamalia and Bereiter, 2006; Haythornthwaite and Andrews, 2007). 3.2 terms definitions The following terms are important in the description of the theoretical framework; each is discussed and a definition is made for their use in the context of this work. 3.2.1 E-learning Haythornthwaite and Andrews (2007) have given the following definition for e-learning: “By e-learning research, we mean primarily into, on, or about the use of electronic technologies for teaching and learning. This encompasses learning for degrees, work requirement and personal fulfilment, institutional and non-institutionally accredited programmes, in formal and informal settings. It includes anywhere, anytime learning, as well as campus-based extensions, to face-to-face classes” (p.1). E-learning is defined by Garrison (2011) as “electronically mediated asynchronous and synchronous communication for the purpose of constructing and confirming knowledge” (p.2). Moving one step further towards interactive learning, it is also collaborative in practice (Garrison, 2011). 3.2.2 Blended learning In order to adapt and develop the teaching approaches, blended learning has been a concept that play important roles where the elements of the teaching and learning process differ from the traditional style, particularly with the approaches and attitudes involved (Sharpe et al., 2006; Harriman, 2004). Blended learning is “the full integration of face-to-face and online activities” in learning (Garrison, 2011, p.75). It is also defined as “the organic integration of thoughtfully selected and complementary face-to-face and online approaches and technologies” (Garrison and Vaughan 2008, p.148). Students learning in blended learning situations, as in some traditional methods, do not play a passive role and are expected to be active in using computer technology, interacting with each other on learning tasks and showing self-efficacy to learn. Likewise, teachers have different roles in encouraging, guiding and providing student feedback to assist them in presenting their unique understandings of events (within an e-learning environment) (Akyuz and Samsa, 2009). In the context of ICT-enabled learning, the concept of blended learning has many applications. The entry of web-based systems and applications into education essentially influences educational curricula and pedagogical approach, which consequently impacts on the development of all elements of the educational teaching approaches and more importantly on students' collaboration and interaction. From the ...
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The author defines the knowledge as the acquaintance of facts, tenets and truths from a study or investigation or as acquaintance of facts and truths from experience. This definition leads him to conclude that theory of knowledge is a justified true belief. He discusses knowledge from a propositional point of view.
In this paper I am going to discuss them with the reference to other teachers and educators. Effective teaching and learning at school have been thought to come as a result of intensive development of software skills and acquiring knowledge of a variety of new tools.
Date of Site visit: Word Count: Contents 1.0Introduction 3 2.0Location of the Building 6 (The location of High Street Plaza Shopping Center in Toowoomba, Queensland, Australia) 7 3.0 Geotechnical and Environmental Studies 7 3.0Building Design 8 (The project design of High Street Plaza shopping center.) 9 4.1 Building Regulations 9 4.2 Type of Building 10 4.3 Layout of the Building 11 4.4 Building Material Specifications and Use 11 4.5 Safety Requirements 12 4.6 Foundation Design 12 4.7 Design of the Building 13 4.0Building Construction 13 5.1 Road Works 13 5.2 Landscape Work 14 5.0Problems Encountered in the Project 16 6.0Recommendations for Improvements 17 7.0Conclusion 17 9.0 Attachments 1
The debate concerning these two argues the communicative approach as means to deliver and develop speech in both nonnative and native speakers of a language (Prabhu, 1987). Nonnative speakers as second language users of a certain language are allowed errors and ‘forgiven’ in their presentation of speech with the assumption that they are the minority and therefore suffer a disability to capacity in that language which they have acquired.
According to the paper the role of play in the fostering of the social, intellectual, psychological and physical development of children cannot be overstated and this is supported by evidence from extensive research by various bodies and individual. The educational community in Europe has increasingly taken cognizance of the need for quality pedagogy in early childhood education.
Very often, more than the message or information conveyed through an article, the idea that it puts across is more important and relevant. The articles do discuss a plethora of ideas, from online technology transfer to international business.
Knowledge claims must be supported by reason, or the knowledge claim does not have a basis to be truly considered knowledge. It can be regarded as a number of other things, such as a feeling. The dependence on reason is varied between areas of knowledge, as reason is much more important in the natural sciences and mathematics.
2), play not only improves children’s physical and mental health but increase their problem solving skills as well as making them more independent and creative. Notwithstanding that, parents and educators categorize play and learning as opposites, the underlying assumption is
It can be less or more systematic or formal. It can be explicit, i.e. as with the theoretical understanding of a subject, or it can be implicit, i.e. as with expertise or practical skill. In order to be considered as
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