It also aimed to reform the society by using reasoning and understanding of the phenomena’s by using scientific knowledge. It aligned majority of the thinkers on the lines of reason and understanding during the 17th and 18th century. It was also referred to as an ‘Age of Reason’ by Thomas Paine (Hackett 1992). It is still believed by many that the basis of modern concepts and thoughts lie in the age of Enlightenment. Science, skepticism and intellectual understanding was promoted during this era as opposed to the superstitious thinking and intolerance by church and state (Wilson 2004). Origin of Age of Enlightenment The Era of Enlightenment was sparked by the great philosophers and thinkers of that time. Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677),Pierre Bayle (1647-1706),physicist Issac Newton (1643-1727) and Philosophers Voltaire were the major proponents in originating the Enlightenment movement (Casey 2008). The revolutionary leaders of the Enlightenment movement hailed themselves as the courageous elites. They claimed to take the world out of the dark period of doubtful traditions and ecclesiastical tyranny due to which the historical wars took place. Education in the Age of Enlightenment The basic purpose of the movement of Enlightenment was to spread scientific knowledge and reasoning among masses and to take people out of the ignorance in which they were plunged in during the Middle Ages.The role of the educational system was very important in spreading the ideas and concepts of Enlightenment among the people. Continuous development took place in the educational system in Europe throughout the Enlightenment period and the French Revolution. The educational development increased and flourished rapidly during the Enlightenment period. Educational history prior to Enlightenment Period Before the period of Enlightenment, religious dogmatic believes and superstitious thinking was given value. The education was considered the sole right of males who belonged to the upper stratus of the society such as nobles, mercantile and professional class. With the spread of the scientific revolution traditional religious and superficial beliefs gave way to scientific thinking and reasoning. Novel and revolutionary scientific ideas were proposed by the philosophers such as John Locke proposed that sensation and reflection plays a part in obtaining knowledge. Locke later developed a theory which was based on the same idea that every human being are equal in the capacity of sensation detection and that education should be made public and reachable by all classes of the society. The roots of Pedagogy as science, also has its roots in the in the Age of Enlightenment. The education was considered a basic tool by the philosophers and thinkers of that time to fight against ignorance and superstition. It was considered a way to achieve an open-minded and egalitarian society (Farzaneh 2009). They fought against censorship and worked towards the practice of free speech. They wanted Declarations of Human rights and an easy and free access to education for all people. Spread and growth of Education system The education before the Age of Enlightenment was considered the divine right of only rich and noble upper class of the society. During the 18th and 17th century there was a significant
Name Instructor Course Topic Evaluate ways in which the European Enlightenment has influenced modern schooling. Introduction In the 17th and 18th centuries the intellectuals started a cultural movement which is referred to as the Age of Enlightenment. It started firstly in Europe then spread to the American colonies…
According to the paper scientists as well as philosophers began to embrace the reality of the existence of human rationality in a way they had previously not been free to do. Any subject which could not be comprehended through rational facts and the existing status of the sciences was viewed as being pointless or superstitious. The study of philosophy grew quite fashionable among the intellectuals who visited the salons, and literate citizens began to study philosophical opera.
I have noted the advancement of technology to remarkable levels, use of green energy in our environment and the use of internet connectivity. These advancements have occurred due to the influence of change in our culture today. In my opinion, enlightenment is a philosophical movement; the human reasoning and innovation in political, education and spiritually doctrine characterize it (Sam 2009).
The improved transport system enabled goods or raw materials such as cotton to be transported from the countryside to towns for manufacturing. This was followed by introduction of the factory system and industries leading to growth of towns and cities and consequently mass migration of locals to towns to look for jobs.
The aspects reflected are reason, experimentation, a belief in science, freedom of thought, and the acquisition of knowledge. He believes that government and legal coercion prevent the discovery of truth, by supporting mistaken thinking. Governments therefore may support errors, the truth supports itself.
For example, a bird was a bird to an individual in the enlightenment age, but to a modernist the bird could stand for freedom. The enlightenment movement based reality on facts, whereas the modernist based reality on
Maturity can be self-developed or self-imposed as well as developed with the help of others. When a person shows courage to demonstrate his understandings, he can be labeled as an enlightened person. In other words, a person will become enlightened when he was able to segregate between good and evil and demonstrate his learning in front of others.
Having the courage to engage ones own understanding is the motto for enlightenment. When immaturity becomes mans nature, it is difficult for such a man to work out of such a situation. He becomes accustomed to
In this regard, this essay will highlight the significant reforms initiated by the two leaders that had great impact on the society.
To start with, Frederic II initiated significant administrative, social and economical reforms in