The paper focuses on the development and growth of the nontraditional adult education programs in higher learning institutions, explaining several factors that have been largely attributed to the increase of the nontraditional adult learning programs in the institutions of higher learning…
This research will begin with the statement that Knowles described andragogy as an emerging technology for adult learning. Knowles employed the word theory in his description of andragogy and later explained that he obtained the term from his European colleagues. Interestingly, Knowles explained that he was not certain of the assumptions of andragogy and left the correctness of the assumption to be challenged, tested and modified through the inquiry process. The andragogy learning process advocates self-directing in learning process since different people would learn at different rates depending on several factors such as age, occupation, and other dimensions of life. The only role that teachers would be required to play in such a process according to Knowles, Holton & Swanson would be to encourage the students as well as nurture the learning process as the students direct their learning process. The learning process in adult education does not follow a systematic process as would be the case with pedagogy, but the adult learner would be willing to learn a new concept in order to cope with a specific life problem. Therefore, the process has been much designed with the flexibility that would allow the student to discover their needs in search of specific lines of knowledge. The andragogy learning process, therefore, offers the necessary tools and creates the conditions necessary for the student to discover the above-explained knowledge....
The andragogy learning process therefore offers the necessary tools and creates the conditions necessary for the student to discover the above explained knowledge. Through Knowles adult learning process and methods, there have been an increasing number of adult learners in institutions of higher educations in and education system that could have been otherwise considered to favor the lower education levels. As Gold (2005) explained, there has been a gradual increase in the number of adult learners registering in the U.S.A universities in search of particular areas of knowledge. Gold further explained that the number of the students in the higher learning institutions was registered at about 28% in 1970, increased to about 37% in 1980 and by 2003; the number was recorded as 43%. The gradual increase might be attributed to the major breakthrough that the education system impacted on adult learners in the United States. It might explain the success of Knowles’s education model in transforming the education system from the traditional learning methods known as pedagogy to a more flexible system that would allow the learners to direct the learning system as per their individual requirements. From the explanations above on of andragogy learning process, the success of the Knowles adult education system and philosophy to large extent revolutionalised the learning process from the subject centered process in pedagogy to the performance centered system in andragogy. It’s therefore evident that the education system to a large extent bridged the gap between the fixed education systems to a more market friendly education system based on specific performance related issues. This might be attributes as the major reason behind the major success in the ...
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Malcolm Knowles defined four assumptions that were increased to six assumptions about the motivations that adults require to learn. The revolution of seeing that adults learn differently than children provided context for looking at the motivation for adult learning.
Learning is often considered to be quite complex matter which has no specific definition. Correspondingly, a large number of special or overlapping theories are regularly being developed of which few trying to explore new ideas and ways of thinking (Illeris, 2009).
Abstract Knowles established six assumptions in adult learning. While all of the assumptions are significant to adult learning, this paper identifies and support self-concept, experience, and motivation to learn assumptions as the most right to the type of learning.
The term Andragogy is used to define the concept of learning among adults. It was first used by a German educator, Alexander Kapp, in the year 1833 but was developed further and defined theoretically by the American educatory Malcolm Knowles (Melick & Melick,
The revolution of seeing that adults learn differently than children provided context for looking at the motivation for adult learning. Just as importantly, defining what makes an individual an adult has meaning when determining how they will perform
Adult learning theories tend to explain how best students pursuing courses at late ages can be assisted. It’s well known that these students are faced by various challenges that make it hard for tutors to achieve their aim of educating them perfectly. Although literature
The adult education theory gets known as Andragogy, which originated in Europe, and got found by a scholar known as Malcolm Knowles, in the year 1957 (Loeng, 2010). Since then, some theories giving explanations on the same have evolved.
The major reasons for
In this context, it is worth mentioning that the modern approach to the adult learning was proposed by Malcolm Knowles and B.F.Skinner. In addition, it is further noted that the theories associated with modern adult learning also implies difference between learning at childhood and adulthood.
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