From the discussion it is clear that Chinese education highly depended on examinations at different levels. There were no formal institutions because only the socio-economically privileged and financially capable can afford such. Because of this system’s openness regardless of family background, the Civil Examination “drove almost all families...to have high hopes for their children’s future”. As the paper stresses China’s education system had endured its hard times and struggled for its revival. The Cultural Revolution is traced as the root where China’s educational system was ruined in the country’s effort for so-called egalitarianism, which unfortunately backfired. When the revolution ended, the late 1970s and the 1980s were years of recovery in both economic and educational aspects. Schools started to open in various places, achieving universal primary education. Some cities like Shanghai opened vocational schools, and eventually China established a degree system for higher education. From the 1990s up to today, primary schools in China have high enrolment rates, as well as junior secondary schools. One of the noteworthy maneuvers in the system is China’s decentralization of education by providing different textbooks in the regions, but having the same universal primary education. In the 21st century, the system concentrates on higher education by mandating the increase of enrolling population.
Confucianism in Chinese Education
Confucius, regarded as a great Chinese thinker, was not concerned with man’s relationship to God or the universe, but rather emphasized on the importance of establishing the “conditions for an ethical society than to seek to answer answerable questions” (Ornstein & Levine, 2008, p.60). He created an educational system that had high regard for ethics and proper behavior, and respect for hierarchical relationships. He associates character education