ave equal strength or power to the bully” (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Olweus, 1996; Solberg, Olweus & Enderson, 2007; Sourander, Holstela, Helenius & Piha, 2000). Aggression was clearly defined in Lee’s research on the relationship of aggression and bullying to social preference as a “behavior that is intended to harm someone either physically or psychologically (Berkowitz, 1993), manifests itself in a wide variety of acts” (Lee, 2009, 323). Despite differences in definitions, bullying still manifests an aggressively vicious behavior expressed either indirectly or directly by a repeated tormenting towards a victim with obviously less strength and power to defend oneself from his aggressor aimed to harm him or her physically or psychologically. III. The role of gender in bullying Diverse research literatures examined the role of gender in increased susceptibility in bullying. There are actually two sides to be examined: (1) does gender play a significant part in assuming the role of the aggressor? In this issue, one would like to assess and evaluate if indeed boys are the instigator of bullying. If so, what forms of bullying do they usually perform? On the other hand, does it necessarily follow that girls are always the victims of bullying? What other perspectives in bullying give credence to gender differences as relevant correlates of bullying? The study conducted by Carbone-Lopez, et.al. (2010) reveal that gender differences have significant impact on bullying and victimization. However, it was necessary to qualify the direct form of bullying versus the indirect form. The direct form involves behavior that aims to physically harm the victim through any of the following means: hitting, kicking, pushing (Carbone-Lopez, et.al, 2010, 333) and fighting, flicking,...
Bullying in Early Education
Parents of bullies were observed to resort to unjustifiable physical punishment instigated by mood swings and flares. Due to the fact that bullies have never learned the value of sharing or cooperation, getting along with others is not an ultimate priority. In this regard, the objective of the research is to determine if gender affects the way children respond to bullying in terms of the response or action taken against bullying and how young children, in general, deal with it. II. Differences in Definition of Bullying Bullying has been described by Marees & Petermann (2010) as “a specific for or aggressive behavior, namely the systematic humiliation, harassment and/or torment of certain children by their peers: (178). Taylor (2003), on the other hand, who studied primary school bullying and the issue of gender differences, defined bullying as “a subcategory of aggressive behavior; but a particularly vicious kind of aggressive behavior since it is directed, often repeatedly, towards a particular victim who is unable to defend himself or herself effectively”.
The impact of gender on the response of children to bullying can still be further investigated to ensure that possible findings would shed light on the diversity of gender and the way they perceive bullying as either a threat to be directly addressed or ignored. There could be other reactions or responses that were not evidently investigated, or reported especially for the age group targeted for the project.