From an evolutionary perspective, both individual and social learning can be viewed as forms of phenotypic plasticity. Both modes of learning are developmental processes that cause organisms to acquire different behaviors in different environments. Phenotypic plasticity may be adaptive in temporally or spatially varying environments if the use of environmental cues enables organisms to acquire behavior that is adaptive in each local habitat…
The ways in which individual learning and social learning allow organisms to adapt to different environments are, however, quite different. Behavioral variants acquired by individual learning are not transmitted from one generation to the next. This means that each individual's behavior develops independently based on the interaction of genetically inherited learning mechanisms and the local environment. Generic variation underlying learning mechanisms may evolve, but the behavioral variants acquired by learning do not. Individual learning is adaptive if it bestows some advantage on the individual. In contrast, behaviors acquired by the imitative and observational forms of social learning are transmitted from one individual to another and thus from one generation to the next. From an evolutionary biologist's perspective social learning is interesting because it mixes aspects of a system of inheritance with aspects of ordinary phenotypic flexibility, creating a system for the inheritance of acquired variation. To understand the conditions under which social learning is adaptive we must understand how individual learning and social learning interact to determine the evolutionary dynamics of the behavioral variants themselves as well as the genes that underlie learning processes.
The evolutionary properties of the inheritance of acquired variation have received relatively little theoretical attention. This inattention may be due to the fact that evolutionary biologists have supposed that the inheritance of acquired variation is rare in nature, essentially restricted to human culture and a few unusual animal systems, such as the songs of some birds. Those biologists who have imagined that social learning is common in animals besides humans have not always taken proper account of the difficulty of demonstrating true imitation in the face of several processes that can mimic its effects. With a few exceptions recent theoretical work on cultural transmission has concentrated on explaining human culture rather than on the more general properties of social learning (Blonski, 1999).
Under what circumstances should natural selection favor a growth of reliance on social learning at the expense of individual learning The answer to this question is important because it seems likely that social learning originally evolved in species with extensive individual learning abilities. Our focus on the adaptive value of social learning does not imply that selection is the only important evolutionary process, or that all behavior is adaptive. We do believe, however, that understanding the conditions under which social learning is adaptive is an important first step in understanding its evolution and the conditions under which one would expect to find social learning in nature.
At first glance, it may seem that social learning will always be the superior form of phenotypic plasticity. Acquiring adaptive behavior by conditioning and other forms of individual learning is often an inefficient process. Learning trials divert time and energy from other fitness-enhancing activities, they may entail serious risks, and there may be substantial chance of not ...
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(Social Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 Words)
“Social Learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.net/education/272673-social-learning.
Case Study: Social Learning Theory
A sixteen year old girl commits the heinous crime of murder, albeit as an accomplice rather than in the first degree. She expresses no remorse over her actions when she is caught, is defiant and unmanageable and is found to have multiple injection marks on her arm indicating extended drug abuse.
Social Learning Theory by Bandura. A detailed explanation on Bandura’s learning theory in relation to Psychotherapy is fundamental to the learning process. Bandura argues that an individual learns behavior from the surrounding by observational learning as apparent in Social Learning Theory.
The overall argument by the department is based on the assumption that if children are constantly exposed to more abusive environment and behaviors, they may tend to acquire or develop such learning and become abusive and destructive citizens when they become adults.
Social learning theory states that individuals are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if such behavior results in outcomes they value. It is posited that people are more likely to adopt a modeled behavior if the model is similar to the observer, possesses an admired status, and has a functional value.
The old adage, "Be a Roman in Rome", has acquired new meaning in the context of new theories of learning. It is easy to be a Roman in Rome by learning Italian and imitating the local gestures, both of which one learns just by being in Rome and interacting with the Romans Participating intimately with the process of learning, an educator knows the social nature of learning.
There is hardly a place where we don t see this behavior. But while it is present everywhere classification is a more elusive problem. The age old question inevitably arises: Is aggression acquired through social acculturation or is it something inherent, that is to say is simply an inborn trait.
He was able to further delve into this interest at Brooklyn College, where he attended seminars given by Adler and meetings of his Society of Individual Psychology at Adler's own home.
After leaving Brooklyn College, Rotter attended the University of Iowa where he studied speech pathology with the semanticist Wendell Johnson, who had a great and enduring influence on Rotter's thinking about the use of language in psychology.
Luckily, modern psychology provides us with the variety of learning theories that can be useful tools to ease the process of learning.
Style of learning is the first of these tools. There exist about 80 learning style models. VAK model
With the increasing development of instruments of destruction, plain aggressive behaviours can generate rampant devastating repercussions. The threats of misguided behaviours have hence become considerably enlarged. The aggressive potential of