In the end it is concluded that given the fragmented and episodic nature of mush AL work, its full potential contribution to pupils' development as language users is not being realized. Suggestions for improvement are made.
The project carried out in the case that is being reviewed has been initially taken into consideration for research as the strong curriculum debates about "Knowledge about language" (KAL) have taken place. This term implies that pupils' learning language in formal setting started to acquire some explicit understandings and knowledge of the nature of language as well as the development of practical language skills were debated to be needed. Therefore, researches of the project that is being reviewed have found it reasonable to review the range of rationales which have been advanced in recent years in support of this position and to provide review of two important findings about teaching of English and of foreign languages. Overall these projects revealed substantial levels of KAL-related activity in English and foreign languages, and some suggestions of its positive contribution to learning, especially for control and planning in writing.
The case study that is being reviewed is well organized and consists of several parts that cohesively complete a new investigation about knowledge of language. After Abstract, and executive summary, authors provide acknowledgement to those who were helpful to complete the research.
Primary thanks are made to several teachers of English and Modern Language as well as to their 9-year classes, who gave access to visit lessons and thus to willingly share the thought and achievements with researches of the study. Also thanks are made to ESRC who funded the project and for the general encouragement to think in a cross-curricular framework which came from participation in the "Quality of Teaching and Leaning" Initiative.
After the acknowledgment part is finished, introduction about the actual study starts investigation. Motivation and goals of the project is a framework of the introduction part. It is stated that "every competent language user, no matter what their level of formal education, has developed a certain level of awareness of the nature of language and how it functions as a system, apparently as a result of their practical experience of langue use. This has been illustrated... however, formal education adds a substantial increment to this implicit metalinguistic awareness, initially as an inevitable by-product of literacy training (which, for example, promotes awareness of the double articulation by which "letters" in different combinations go to make up "words")."
Further, rational about the project is stated. Authors speak about the rise-and-rise of knowledge about language, about differences in language education over years and centuries. It is stated that "the 20th century has seen the growth more experiential theories of language learning and development for both L1 and second/foreign languages, and their increasing influence even in formal education". Teachers of English in England are typically literature-oriented in training as well as teachers of foreign languages are influenced by he behavioral concerns of the "communicative language