Over the years different legislations have been passed by government to facilitate the literacy and learning environment but at times these laws become a barrier as laws are difficult to understand and implement. Also, there could be administrative barriers at school, college, university, and district and state levels.
Multicultural environments pose barriers to learning and literacy as students seek companionship with the people of same background and language. Interactions among classmates who are from vastly diverse linguistic backgrounds are different from the students with mainly same ethnic or linguistic background. "Traditionally, some of the factors that restrict access to full literacy for language-minority students have included (a) xenophobic English-only movements (Donahue, 1995); (b) limited resources and personnel within ESL (August & Hakuta, 1997); (c) controversy about bilingual education (Faltis & Hudelson, 1998; Krashen, 1996); (d) differences about the duration and type of language services children should receive (Collier, 1987); and (e) cultural and linguistic deficit models (Luke, 1986)" (Grant & Wong, 2003).
Motivation of individuals for stirring the process of literacy and human development is considered one of the main barriers to learning. ...
Motivational barrier can be both intrinsic as well extrinsic. Educationists must try to look at this barrier from both angles to facilitate the process of literacy, learning and development of learners.
Many students manifest a number of emotional issues that hinder the process of learning and development. Many external factors like poverty and low income, difficult family circumstances, upbringing, violent neighborhoods, substance abuse, inadequate health care etc may disturb individuals emotionally. As a result of these issues many individuals show problems like low self worth and self-esteem, anger, frustration, lack of motivation, embarrassment and fear of censure etc. Many researches have shown that lack of literacy competence can be attributed to a number of intrinsic emotional factors of individuals. Different individuals show different emotional problems. Some might have a much depreciated view of one's personality while another person may have issues of shyness only. Different emotional barriers should be considered by experts particularly in the matters of curriculum development and general policy formulation related to education.
Attitudes and Expectations of Others
The learning competency and development of learners also gets affected by the unhealthy and unrealistic expectations of parents, teachers, and other important people involved in the education process. Many parents have set a certain material standard for their children or some gauge learning by top grades only putting unrealistic pressures on students causing hindrances in the learning process. "Outside the classroom, 'development' has wide social currency. It is used by parents to compare their own child to others and by commercial