Howard Gardner (1983), in his theory of multiple intelligences, proposed that learning, for every individual, is a distinctive combination of intelligences, resulting from one's distinctive abilities, challenges, experiences, and training (Stremba & Bisson, 2009). Individuals possess distinctive learning styles depending on their process of focusing, processing, assimilating and reproducing content.
Effectiveness of learning is mostly influenced by the mode of communication which connects the learner with the learning, through words, pictures, thoughts, feelings (verbal, visual, nonverbal, kinesthetic), sounds, numbers etc (Ryan & Cooper 2008).
The visual learners have a tendency to relate their learning to observed events, objects, situations thereby forming impressions that help them retrieve information when they visualize these events or objects.
Auditory learners tend to grasp information presented to them in some form of sound, like lecture, recording, music, discussion etc. this is characteristic of a classroom teaching, learning through audio-visual aids in training sessions, or in group discussions.
Kinesthetic learners are more inclined to learning through experimentation, touching, and feeling. These learners tend to learn more when they move around, act out concepts while reading and by touching or feeling structures such as historical monuments.
Effective learning can be ensured by adopting specific strategies that can match these learning styles, and help in better understanding, remembering, relating to facts and better reproducibility. For this, assessment of personality type is also important. Myers-Briggs model identifies four types of personalities based on specific traits possessed by people; they are thinker, organizer, giver and adventurer (Carter, Bishop & Kravits 2007). Keeping in mind these personality types and the aforementioned learning styles, different strategies can be developed that will aid in effective communication and collaboration among different people within a group.
For instance, organizers with visual learning style can use colorful flashcards to emphasize on main learning points, use visual aids, pictures, graphics, maps etc. Thinkers with visual learning can make use of innovative designs, puzzles, and specific problem solving methods. Givers with auditory learning style can ensure better learning by teaching others, conducting group discussions, and enacting plays. Enacting plays can also help the visual learners.
Organizing group activities using physical resources skillfully and games involving different people can be used for kinesthetic learners. This will also help the thinkers as it will give them an opportunity to problem solving with different approaches. Conducting lab experiments or practical study, in case of arts, along with lectures will benefit people with all the three learning styles. This process will also make use of different characteristics of organizers, givers, and thinkers in bringing about