101). The debate about the definition of term 'collaborative' as well as ongoing attempts to identify relevant criteria to determine whether learning is collaborative or not does not seem to have any major implications for the basics of collaborative learning.
Almost every research study exploring collaborative learning environment comes to positive conclusions (Johnson, Johnson, and Stanne, 1986; Natasi and Clements, 1991). Natasi and Clements (1991) summarize these conclusions in the following way: "Cognitive-academic and social-emotional benefits have been reported for students from early elementary through college level, from diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds, and having a wide range of ability levels Furthermore, cooperative learning has been used effectively across a wide range of content areas, including mathematics, reading, language arts, social studies and science" (p. 111).
Initially, research in the realm of collaborative learning focused on functioning of an individual learner in a group: the theories which dominated cognitive psychology over the 1970s tended to emphasise the role of individual information processors in the process of cognition. ...Show more