The correlation between how involving the material was to students and quiz score was found to be negative. On the other hand, the extent of sniffy involvement and learning outcomes was positively correlated. This study has shown that quality time spent on learning concepts and also experience wrestled from a student's experience gave better performance than the mere amount of time devoted to the learning materials provided. The implication of this study to teachers and students alike is that more efforts should be devoted to enhancing students' comprehension through better learning habits than mere rote hours students are encouraged to spend on learning materials.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (2003) defines learning in psychology as the process by which a relatively lasting change in potential behavior occurs as a result of practice or experience .This definition places a distinction between learning and behavioral changes that arise from processes such as maturation. The former takes place throughout life, whereas the latter accounts for a large proportion of the behavior observed in man.
Learning as a subject is as old as man himself. However, the learning process did not receive serious systematic inquiry until over a century ago. Ivan Pavlov (1927)'s classical work with dogs produced the classical conditioning theory. This theory posits that changed behavior (learning) can be elicited involuntarily even after the stimuli that produced the observed behavior had been replaced by another. The work of Skinner(1953) gave rise to the operant conditioning theory. This theory says that learning takes place through voluntary behavior, which can be shaped by the application of external stimuli in the form of rewards and punishments. Rewards and reinforcements are administered to produce the desired learning outcomes, whereas punishments are given to curb undesirable behavior. The third theory given by Kohler(1992) is called the cognitive learning theory. It says that learning takes place often through trial and error until insight is gained into the problem under investigation.
Learning as a tool for gaining competitive edge at the individual and organizational levels is increasingly being recognized. At the individual level, it can be safely said that today's careers are built largely through sustained life-long learning. Persons adept at pursuing fruitful learning can expect to see vast improvements in their school work and also their careers. Whereas those who give low priority to this activity, risks being left behind by their counterparts. In most fields of endeavor, the surest route to making a distinctive mark is to commit oneself to learning. At the organizational level, many firms are charting the path to becoming learning organizations. They are committing greater resources to making the realization of this goal possible.
If learning brings such enormous benefits, why is it that people sometimes are reluctant to commit themselves to this activity The answer to this question brings the allied subject of motivation into the picture. It is important to point out that learning does not always come easily and cheap. One could encounter difficulty with the learning task itself or may have to cope with an environment that is largely unsupportive or uncooperative. In such situations, motivation