It was founded by I Ansoff, Their discipline had some links to urban planning, system theory & cybernetics. This school was administered and spread by professional managers, people with MBA's staff experts (especially in finance and management) consultants & government controllers. Their intended message was to formalize. The message received by their intended listeners was to make a program and administer one. They belonged to the Prescriptive school category. Their theory states that a stitch in time saves time. Their failure was caused by their not supporting real-time strategy making nor encourages creative accidents. c) Positioning school - This was founded by Sun Tzu in his literary work The Art of War. This school concentrated on economics or the industrial organization and the military history. This school was championed by consulting boutiques type of business and United States writers. They espouse the theory of analyzing things. The message that was received by their listeners was that they should calculate their every move and not concentrate on creating or committing. This theory belonged also to the Prescriptive management school of thought. Their theory was to consider only the facts of in management decision making. Their shortfall was due to their strategy being reduced to generic positions that were selected thru formalized analysis of industry. d) The Entrepreneurial school was established by J A Schump and A H Cole with collaboration from other economics faculty. Their writings were based on economics. Their intended message was to envision the future but the listeners interpreted their teachings as to centralize and hope for the best. They belonged to the second type of school called the descriptive. Their theory was to take themselves to the leader. Their failure was due to the unclear vision and they depended too much on the leader to for decision making purpose. e) The Cognitive school was established by H A Simon and J March. Their base discipline was Psychology (cognitive). This school was preached by pessimists who are psychologically bent. Their intended message was to cope with any situation or create a solution. The message that got thru to the listeners was that worry was evident in all their actions. This school was described as Descriptive. Its saying goes I will see if when I believe it. Their failure was due to the too subjective approach to strategy formulation. f) The learning school was established by LIndbio, Cyert, March, Weick, Quinn, Prahlad & Hamel. There seems to be no base discipline in this school. Chaos theory in mathematics had started here. The movers of this school were people who loved to experiment, ambiguous and adaptable to many situations like in Japan and Scandinavia They are espousing that the prefer learning but the message that reaches the listeners seems to be the movers just want a play atmosphere to abound. Their school falls under Descriptive type. Their very famous line goes if at first you don't succeed, try and try again. Their failure seems to be that their strategic management process seems to be chaotic or in trouble. Their teachings seem chaotic.g) The power school was established by Alison, Pfeffer, Salancik & Astley.
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