Teachers and supervisors are inevitable part in the learning process of the contemporary educational system and they play a fundamental role in the progress and improvement of the curricular and instructional strategy. As the teachers play the most fundamental part in the curricular and instructional activity of teaching, they can act as one of the primary sources in supervisors in curricular and instructional change and improvement. In a profound understanding of the nature and processes of teacher accountability in schools, the relevance of the role of teachers and supervisors in curricular and instructional change and improvement becomes palpable. Teachers and supervisors are responsible for the overall development of the students through their instructional strategy and the curriculum and the teachers also have several other management functions in the classroom setting. Through their acts of mentoring and instructions, the teachers carry out some of the most essential management responsibilities. Therefore, there is vital significance for staff development programs which can result in improved teaching, instructional strategy and curriculum. As the staff development programs are hierarchical, the ideas to improve the curriculum are imposed from far above. "From the apex of school organization to the classroom teachers then is emphasized in making changes in curriculum. Change in the curriculum does not necessarily represent reform. If reform is evident in a changed curriculum, students are attaining objectives effectively and developing quality attitudes toward school." (Ediger, 1993, p 81). Therefore, the role of the teachers as well as the supervisors in the curricular and instructional change and improvement has been generally acknowledged and it is essential to give due recognition of their role in the improvement of educational process as well as to adopt strategies to encourage the participation of the teachers and supervisors in the curricular and instructional change and improvement.
In a reflective investigation of the nature and processes of teacher accountability in a school, it becomes lucid that teachers are the primary factors influencing the affective dimension of curriculum improvement and the various examples of mentoring prove that teachers can carry some management responsibility. The teachers have an important role in stressing the quality attitudes of the students and they often make use of the strategies of mentoring in order to improve the affective dimension of curriculum. It is essential for a decision-making model in the curriculum improvement that all teachers actively take part in staff development. "Each teacher needs to be an active participant rather than a passive being in curriculum improvement. With active participation in decisions made to improve the curriculum, feelings of belonging should be an inherent result. Feelings of being significant and valued are desired by all in school and in society Quality improvements in the curriculum do not come about with a lack of feelings of belonging to a cohesive set of teachers." (Ediger, 1993, p 81). Therefore, the most essential fact in the improvement of the curriculum and instructional strategy within a school is the coordinated efforts by the teachers and supervisors who can influence the curricular and instructional change and improvement. There are several contexts in which teachers are required to perform curricular tasks and they perform different kinds of curricular activities. "Teachers make curricular choices, and they adopt and mold existing curriculum materials to their specific teaching situations. Sometimes teachers are involved in the construction of their own curriculum, but mostly they are engaged in the implementation of the curriculum materials which were developed outside the schools in which they teach." (Ben-Peretz, 1990, p 33).